[Internet Archaeology]

Internet Archaeology Archive: Second annual report 1996-97

1. Activities and Progress

i. Major objectives

During its second year the project maintained four major objectives: (1) the production of a regular electronic journal; (2) the development of a detailed description of the process of establishing and managing an electronic journal; (3) the definition of a suite of access and navigation tools that will allow readers to use the journal; and, (4) to make a contribution to cultural change through the increased use of electronic media.

By the start of our second year the journal's infrastructure, including staffing, committees, refereeing system, and editorial policy were in place. These systems have been maintained throughout our second year of operation with minor modifications.

ii. Main activities

Our main activities during our second year have been focussed in several areas:

2. Learning from the process of implementation

i. Difficulties managing project and carrying out activities

3. Interim evaluation results

I Interim evaluation results i. Forms of evaluation

Evaluation of the Internet Archaeology has been undertaken in several ways:

I Evaluation workshops

II Examination of access statistics

III Informal feedback

IV Feedback via the Journal's mailing list, intarch-interest

V Feedback to and from the Steering Committee

VI Feedback to and from the Technical Panel

VII Feedback to and from the Editorial Board

See Appendix XI for an extended report on evaluation activities and feedback throughout the reporting year.

ii. Results

The results of the evaluation programme are considered under the following headings:

I Mobilisation

II Cultural change

III Cost-effectiveness/value-added

IV sustainability

V demand/usefulness/performance

VI future scenarios

VII contribution to overall project goals

iii. Mobilisation

The journal is managed by a consortium of departments of archaeology in higher education and by the Council for British Archeaology and the British Academy. This involvement in the archaeological community ensures the spreading of awareness of the benefits of electronic publication.

Other forms of raising awareness include talking to significant national organisations, lectures and seminars at archaeological conferences (including the annual conferences of the Institute of Field Archaeologists, the Society for Museum Archaeologists, and the Association of Archaeological Illustrators) as well as attending other events such as Libtech 1996, the Launch of the Arts and Humanities Data Service, and the EVA97 conference.

iv. Cultural change

Through the programme of attending conferences and of evaluation workshops the Journal is contributing to cultural change. The attendance at conferences raises the profile of the Journal, and prompts archaeologists to think about how they can use the Journal. There is the effect of both raising appreciation of the electronic format, and of triggering new ideas of how to present archaeological information. The archaeological organisations and individual in contact with the journal show a keen appreciation of the benefit of electronic publication, and recognise that it will be a major way of disseminating the results of archaeological studies.

v. Cost-effectiveness/value-added

Through the evaluation workshops direct feedback about the Journal has been gained (see Appendix XI, section 2.1 for full details). The Journal is appreciated for its obvious advantages of being able to present information in a fluid manner, being available over the Internet at any time, and being a relatively quick form of publication.

vi. Sustainability

Promotion and marketing has continued throughout the year, with the Journal's staff attending various conferences and events to raise awareness of the Journal. Two issues have been put onto the Web, with papers being added as they have been completed. The importance of producing a regular journal, and its profile being kept high is recognised. The Journal's email list, intarch-interest, is used to announce new papers, and details of any events that the Journal is attending. The list is also used to promote discussion about the papers.

vii. Demand/usefulness/performance

Via the web sever, the usage statistics, in many formats, can be assessed (see Appendix IX, and Appendix XI, section 2.2), and the number of registered users is recorded on the home page of each issue, as well as the main home page of the Journal itself. These show a strong interest in the Journal, as well as its usage throughout the World. The Journal, as might be expected, is used mainly by the Higher Education community, however, there are a significant number of hosts which indicate at wider audience.

viii. Future scenarios

The Journal will continue to produce Issues at a rate of two per year. Each issue contains about five distinct papers. Innovative papers which exploit the facilities of the Web are continually sought, so that the Journal continues to lead the field in electronic publication. It is intended to incorporate the newer features of the Web (such as Java Applets and Frames) where appropriate.

The evaluation programme will continue with evaluation workshops, which have the effect of not only raising the awareness of the journal at large, but of gaining important feedback. At a later point, when enough feedback has been gained by people using the Journal, more intensive focus groups will take place (see Appendix XI, section 4.0).

ix. Contribution to overall project goals

The Journal is continuing to maintain its pace of both production of Journal Issues, and raising awareness of electronic publication in archaeology and the wider Higher Education community.

4. Future development

i. Main objectives of next reporting period

ii. Planned changes in overall direction

Fundamentally, work on the project has reinforced our earlier plans although our staffing plans have continued to evolve to support the range of skills required.

iii. Development beyond project time frame

As mentioned throughout this report the focus of our efforts has been on the development of a journal which will be viable beyond the three years of initial support. The current view of our Steering Committee is that we have already made substantial inroads on traditional publishing practices by influencing publication policy and have begun to contribute to a culture change within the key archaeological funders. However, they believe that we will need to seek additional support for 2-3 further years in order to consolidate our position and develop alternative sources of funding from within the archaeological profession, for which we must increase our credibility as a permanent feature on the publication landscape. The only way which we can do this is

to continue to publish high quality scholarly articles,

to continue to develop models for the publication of archaeological fieldwork, particularly excavation, and

to continue to demonstrate the advantages of electronic publication over traditional models.

Dr Michael Heyworth Dr Julian Richards Dr Seamus Ross
Council for British Archaeology Department of Archaeology Humanities & Advanced Technology Information Institute
Bowes Morrell House University of York University of Glasgow
111 Walmgate The King's Manor 6 University Gardens
York YO1 2UA York YO1 2EP Glasgow G12 8QQ
tel 01904 671417 tel 01904 433930 tel 0141 330 4980
fax 01904 671384 fax 01904 433902
email m.heyworth@dial.pipex.com email jdr1@york.ac.uk email seamusr@arts.gla.ac.uk

27 August 1997

List of appendices

Appendix I

Table of contents of second and third issues, 1997

Issue 2 (spring 1997)


Alan Vince
(http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue 2/edit2.html)
Submitted: May 1997; Published: May 1997; Words: 1,597 (10.4KB); Images: 0 (0)

The need for the solid modelling of structure in the archaeology of buildings
Robert Daniels
(http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue 2/daniels_index.html)
Submitted: November 1996; Published: April 1997; Words: 10,916 (78.2KB); Images: 19 (262KB)

Iron Age and Roman copper alloys from northern Britain
David Dungworth
(http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue 2/dungworth_index.html)
Submitted: July 1996; Published: April 1997; Words: 76,997 (625KB); Images: 258 (1.66MB)

The `chaine opératoire' approach to lithic analysis
Roger Grace
(http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue 2/grace_index.html)
Submitted: September 1996; Published: April 1997; Words: 9,126 (72.0KB); Images: 47 (473KB)

Enhancing the record through remote sensing: the application and integration of multi-sensor, non-invasive remote sensing techniques for the enhancement of the Sites and Monuments Record. Heslerton Parish Project, North Yorkshire, England.
Dominic Powlesland, James Lyall & Danny Donoghue
Submitted: January 1997; Published: April 1997; Words: 10,857 (88.1KB); Images: 25 (643KB)

Why metadata matters in archaeology
Alicia Wise & Paul Miller
(http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue 2/wise_index.html)
Submitted: April 1997; Published: April 1997; Words: 5,995 (48.4KB); Images: 1 (22KB)

Issue 3 (autumn 1997)


Alan Vince
(http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue 3/edit3.html)
Submitted: August 1997; Published: August 1997

Publishing archaeology on the web: who reads this stuff anyway
Alan Vince, with Julian Richards, Seamus Ross & Mike Heyworth
Submitted: May 1997; Published: July 1997; Words: 10,484 (104KB); Images: 1 (10.7KB)

Céramique en pays sereer et tumulus sénégambiens [The pottery of the Sereer and the tumuli of Senegambia]
Stéphane Pradines
Submitted: February 1997; Published: August 1997; Words: 9,228 (76.9KB); Images: 32 (620KB)

A gazetteer of Sub-Roman Britain (AD 400-600): the British sites
Christopher A Snyder
Submitted: March 1997; Published: August 1997

Fish remains and humankind: 1
edited by Andrew Jones & Rebecca A Nicholson
Andrew K G Jones & Rebecca A Nicholson
Submitted: September 1996; Published: August 1997; Words: 369 (3KB); Images: 0 (0KB)
Some remarks on seasonal dating of fish remains by means of growth analysis
D C Brinkhuizen
Submitted: September 1996; Published: August 1997; Words: 7211 (46.0KB); Images: 0 (0KB)
Cranial osteology of the redear sunfish; examples from the American Midwest
Mona L Colburn
Submitted: September 1996; Published: August 1997; Words: 3641 (25.6KB); Images: 14 (170KB)
Pike (Esox lucius) in Late Medieval culture: from illiterate empericism to the literate traditions
Richard C Hoffmann
Submitted: September 1996; Published: August 1997; Words: 9776 (69KB); Images: 0 (0KB)
A simple machine for bulk processing of sediments
David J Ward
Submitted September 1996; Published: August 1997; Words: 4880 (32.9KB); Images: 2 (78.9KB)

REVIEW: Perseus 2.0: Sources and Studies on Ancient Greek Culture CD-ROM reviewed by Harrison Eiteljorg, II

REVIEW: FieldWorker Advanced 2.3 and FieldWorker Pro 0.91 reviewed by Nick Ryan, Jason Pascoe and David Morse

Appendix II

Table of forthcoming contributions
Archaeological excavations in the Souks area of downtown Beirut 1994-95 D Perring, H Seeden & T Williams
Les nécropoles à incinérations gallo-romaines du grand-duché de Luxembourg- Premiers resultats d'une recherche en cours [Gallo-Roman cremation cemeteries in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg - Initial findings of current research] Michel Polfer & Jos Thiel, Luxembourg
Excavations at West Heslerton, Yorkshire Dominic Powlesland, Heslerton Parish Project, UK
Two south-east Spain middle palaeolithic sites with Neanderthal remains: Sima de las Palomas del Cabezo Gordo and Cueva Negra del Estrecho del Quipar Michael Walker & Josep Gibert, Spain
Etruscan pottery from the Albegna Valley/Ager Cosanus survey Phil Perkins, The Open University, UK
The Romanisation of provincial art: the mosaics of Roman Britain Nancy Mactague
Medieval Islamic pottery Robert Mason
A dated typology of eighteenth to twentieth century grave markers in Britain Harold Mytum, University of York
Prehistoric environments of the East Midlands, UK A G Brown, University of Exeter
Archaeology and the law in Britain: an Internet digest John Carman, University of Cambridge
Graphical analysis of regional archaeological data: site typology to explore the Neolithization proces in the South-east of the Netherlands M Wansleeben and L B M Verhart, Leiden University, The Netherlands
The United Kingdom Ceramic Thin-Section Database Kate Steane, Barbara Precious & Alan Vince, City of Lincoln Archaeology Unit & the University of York, UK
Fish remains and humankind: 2 edited by Andrew Jones & Rebecca A Nicholson

Appendix III

List of formal presentations undertaken


5th: Sandra Garside-Neville gave a talk on the journal at the LIBTECH exhibition at the University of Hertfordshire.
6th: Alan Vince spoke at the Association of Archaeological Illustrators and Surveyors annual conference in Canterbury.
10th-12th: Sandra Garside-Neville ran a display stand demonstrating the journal live over the Internet at the Institute of Field Archaeologist's `Archaeology in Britain 1996' conference at the University of Manchester.

15th-16th: Alan Vince spoke at the Society for Museum Archaeologists 1996 conference in St Albans, Hertfordshire.


16th: Sandra Garside-Neville and Julian Richards demonstrated the journal at the launch of the Arts & Humanities Data Service in London. April 2nd-6th: Alicia Wise (from the Archaeology Data Service) represented the journal at the annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology in Nashville, USA. 10th-13th: Alan Vince spoke at the Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA97) conference at the University of Birmingham. 22nd: Sandra Garside-Neville (together with Paul Miller and Alicia Wise of the Archaeology Data Service) ran a workshop in the Department of Archaeology, University of York, introducing local archaeologists to the Internet and the journal in particular. 30th: Seamus Ross spoke at the `Managing Electronic Journals: the CIC model' seminar at the University of Warwick, UK June 3rd: Dr Christopher Snyder, author of a forthcoming paper to be published in the journal, presented a seminar at the University of York Department of Archaeology allowing members of the Department to give their views on his planned contribution. 27th: Alan Vince spoke at the Electronic Imaging & the Visual Arts (EVA) 97 Conference at University College London.


August 27th-29th: Julian Richards will be speaking at `BULISC '97 - New tricks 2: eLib & telematics: projects & partnerships' at Bournemouth University. September 9th-11th: Sandra Garside-Neville (together with Alicia Wise of the Archaeology Data Service) will be running a workshop entitled `Publication and preservation on the Internet' at the Institute of Field Archaeologist's `Archaeology in Britain 1997' conference at the University of Manchester. There will also be a display stand. 14th-17th: Seamus Ross will be representing the journal in a panel session on `Changing shape: the electronic journal', at the `Digital Resources for the Humanities '97' conference at the University of Oxford. October 1st-4th: Alan Vince will set up a poster display and demonstration stand at the `Medieval Europe 1997' conference in Brugge, Belgium. November 12th: Sandra Garside-Neville will be hosting a drop in session in the journal's office for archaeologists attending a conference in the University of York.


March 25th-28th: Alan Vince will be representing the journal at the Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA98) conference in Barcelona, Spain. 25th-29th: Julian Richards will be presenting a paper on the journal to the annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology in Seattle, USA.

Appendix IV

List of published papers about the journal

`Multi-media journal launched on screen', British Archaeology, 17, September 1996, 5.

`Internet Archaeology', Keynotes, 23(1), October 1996, The University of York Computing Service, 7.

`New electronic journal funded by eLib programme', Yorkshire Library News, 77, August 1996, The Library Association, Yorkshire and Humberside Branch.

`Recent publications on post-medieval archaeology: Internet Archaeology', Society for Post-Medieval Archaeology Newsletter, Second Series, 43, summer 1996, 8.

`Internet offers many electronic journals of preservation interest', NCPTT Notes (National Center for Preservation Technology and Training), 15, December 1996, 8.

Mike Heyworth, Seamus Ross & Julian Richards, 1996 `Internet Archaeology: an international electronic journal for archaeology', Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia, 28, Interfacing the Past: Computer applications and quantitative methods in archaeology CAA95, edited by Hans Kamermans and Kelly Fennema, University of Leiden, 517-23.

Mike Heyworth, Julian Richards, Seamus Ross & Alan Vince, 1996 `Internet Archaeology: an international journal for archaeology', Archaeologia e Calcolatori, 7, 1195-1206.

Alan Vince and Sandra Garside-Neville, 1997 `Publishing multimedia in archaeology', EVA '97 London conference proceedings: electronic imaging and the visual arts, forthcoming.

Mike Heyworth, Julian Richards, Alan Vince & Sandra Garside-Neville, 1997 `Internet Archaeology: a quality electronic journal', Antiquity, forthcoming.

Appendix IX

Publishing archaeology on the web: who reads this stuff anyway

Alan Vince, with Julian Richards, Seamus Ross & Mike Heyworth


Appendix X

'A step beyond reading in archaeological publication', a review of Internet Archaeology, issue 1 (1996), by Constantinos Dallas, Archive and Museum Informatics, 11: 55-64, 1997

Appendix XI



Evaluation of the Internet Archaeology has been undertaken in several ways:

Each of these provide invaluable input about the layout and content of the Journal and how the users perceive it.


2.1 Workshops

Two full workshops were undertaken, and one informal drop-in session was run. The workshops were carefully planned and had a questionnaire to be filled in at the end of the session. The same questionnaire (Figure 1) was used for both of the workshops, to provide comparable information.

Figure 1



Please fill in the boxes below, and feel free to add any other comments at the bottom of the page.

Thank you for your help.

Criterion High 5 4 3 2 1 0 Low
Home Page Easy to understand, well laid out Confusing
Table of Contents Easy to understand, interesting Cluttered
Registration Understood what this entailed Was not sure of implications
Finding your way around Easy Difficult
Organisation of the whole journal Well organised Confusing
Illustrations Effective & appropriate Poor & inappropriate
Structure of the articles Logical Confusing
Would you prefer an electronic journal to a traditional hard copy journal? Yes (very enthusiastic) No (not enthusiastic)
Overall impression Excellent Poor

Your specific comments:

Please comment on the content of the articles, any specific problems encountered, your feelings in general about the journal, and anything else you think relevant to help improve the journal.. Also, if you have any comments on how this Workshop was run, please note them down or tell us. Continue overleaf if necessary.

2.1.1 University of York undergraduates

In October 1996 a forty-five minute workshop was run from within an information technology course. There were twenty-two students in their second year of the BA Archaeology degree, who were learning about the sources of information on the Internet. This meant that the students were broadly familiar with how to navigate their way round the Internet, but probably did not know much about electronic journals. It was evident that there were a mix of abilitities - from the highly computer-literate to the computer phobics. The age ranged from about eighteen to the late twenties.

At this point, there was just one issue of the Journal to look at. However, this contains key presentation methods such as VRML, databases that could be interrogated via cgi scripts and many colour images and maps. Also, the registration module was in place. The Home Pages, consisting of information about the management structure, the staff, the formation of the Journal, access statistics, forthcoming papers, and so, were also in place.

Very little introduction was given to the Journal, other than to state what its purpose was. The students were given the aim of registering, so that they could go on and browse the papers. All were successful in registering, though there were some problems with the username and password, which they confused with their University network logins. Only one person wasn't sure what the implications of registering were.

The majority of students found the Home Page and the Table of contents easy to understand. Some students did find navigation a little difficult, but none said it was impenetrable. The organisation of the Journal was found to be acceptable. The illustrations were well received, with only one person having reservations. The structure of the papers was understandable. When asked about whether they would prefer an electronic journal to a hard copy journal there was a mixed response. However, the Journal's overall impression was very good.

Some students added comments of their own. One student found the 3D image (the VRML file) difficult to control at first, but she soon got the hang of it. Another student could see that the keyword search facility would be very useful when there were more issues to search. One student professed to be very enthusiastic about electronic journals, but whilst she had free access to it (as a student). Other comments were:

" looks really good and useful"

"excellent facility for writing essays and research, as well as general interest"

"overall effect promising"

"no criticism yet, feel as though I've just scratched the surface"

It is clear that some students could see the advantages of an electronic journal, and appreciated the features within the papers. A graph showing students replies to the questions about the Journal is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2

2.1.2 York Archaeological Trust - professional archaeologists

This workshop was run in April 1997, and was somewhat different in nature from the first workshop. Whereas the participants for the first workshop were at least broadly familiar with the Internet the same could not be assumed with those attending the second. This consideration was taken into account by giving over part of the workshop to introducing the participants to web browsers and sources of archaeological information on the Internet. The later part of the session was devoted to browsing the Journal.

There were fifteen participants, with an age range from the late twenties to the early fifties. Some were from departments of the York Archaeological Trust (YAT) that use computers every day and are obviously very computer literate. Others have only a passing contact with computers. Their status was mixed, ranging from senior managers to junior officers. Their specialisations included graphics, finds, computers, editing, archives, and excavation. The session was particularly appreciated by the YAT Computing Manager as he was currently redesigning the YAT's web pages and had recently introduced email for all staff, and wanted to introduce people to the idea of the Internet.

By April 1997 there were two issues of the Journal available to browse, giving a broad range of subjects to investigate. The workshop was run in tandem with the Archaeology Data Service (ADS), which provided two staff, both of whom helped to patrol the room and offer help to those who need it. The programme (Figure 3) allowed for a talk about browsers and how they worked, search engines, and web resources. The ADS also introduced their service, which complements the work of the Journal and was also highly relevant to the YAT, which is generating large amounts of computerised data. A short amount of time was allocated to the YAT Computing Manager in case he wanted to point out certain features that may be of particular use to YAT staff.

Figure 3


Tuesday April 22nd 1997


Room K120 at the King's Manor, University of York


9.00am - 12.00


Sandra Garside-Neville, Assistant Editor, Internet Archaeology

Paul Miller, Collections Manager, Archaeology Data Service

Alicia Wise, Data Coordinator, Archaeology Data Service


This workshop aims to introduce the participants to the electronic journal Internet Archaeology, and gather feedback about the content and presentation.


To set the journal in context, an introduction to Internet sources for archaeology will be given. This will be followed by an introduction to the Archaeology Data Service which will explain its role in archaeology and its relationship to the Journal.

The journal and its key features will be demonstrated, and then participants will have a chance to browse the journal. Finally, evaluation forms can be filled in and discussion will take place.


9.00 Welcome (Sandra)

9.05 Archaeology sources on the Internet (Sandra)

9.30 The Archaeology Data Service (Alicia & Paul)

10.00 Internet Archaeology (Sandra)

10.15 Participants browse the journal (Alicia, Paul, & Sandra)

10.45 Tea break in the King's Manor Refectory

11.00 Participants browse the journal (Alicia, Paul & Sandra)

11.30 Evaluation (Sandra)

11.45 YAT session (Mike Rains)

12.00 End of workshop

It was ensured that everyone had a computer to themselves so that the individual was free to use the machine how they wished. The introductory talk about archaeology sources was demonstrated using an LCD panel linked to an ohp and computer. This meant that the participants could see what to aim for on their own screen. To bypass any time wasting or confusion each computer was logged into the network before the participants sat down. Also, the temporary user accounts were already set up with bookmarks and a special hyperlinks file to point to the sources used (Figure 4). This made it initially easy to navigate and for time to be taken to explain the use of the web browser and explain the web concepts.

Figure 4

Internet Archaeology

ISSN 1363-5387

Archaeology Sources on the Internet

Search Engines


Internet Archaeology

Internet Archaeology Home Page
Mailbase Mailing List: intarch-interest

Archaeology Data Service

ADS Home page

Resource Guides

UK Archaeology on the Internet
Archaeological Resource Guide for Europe
Archaeology: an Introduction by Kevin Greene

Other Electronic Journals, Newsletters, etc.

ASSEMBLAGE Based at University of Sheffield. Has a magazine format
Antiquity Hosted by Internet Archaeology. Has indices and tasters of papers
Current Archaeology Includes highlights of previous printed articles
On-line Archaeology Experimental journal of archaeological theory at Southampton University.
British Archaeology Web versions of recent magazines
Papers from the Institute of ArchaeologyContents pages, and some full texts
Derbyshire Archaeological Journal Searchable index for the entire journal from 1879 to the present
London Archaeologist Advert only

Interesting sites

ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group Home Page
Roman Ceramics on ArchWeb
Roman Open-Air Museum Hechingen-Stein
Archeologische Monumenten in Nederland

The aim was to give people a taster of the Web, including search engines and the archaeology sites available. In particular, the Resource Guides were highlighted to give people an idea of what resources are available. Also important, when trying to introduce archaeologists to the Web, was to point out the various approaches to publication. This was particularly pertinent to YAT staff as they were involved with redesigning their own organisation's Web pages. Unfortunately, time did not allow for all aspects of the Internet to be explored, such as discussion lists, and email in general. The main aspect to focus on was introducing the participants to the World Wide Web and Internet Archaeology.

The ADS gave a short talk about their service, which YAT may want to consider using at some point. Most archaeological organisations produce digital records these days, but do not necessarily make arrangements for their curation and dissemination.

After a short lead-in lecture, where the main concepts of Internet Archaeology were explained, the participants were able to browse the Journal. Throughout the browsing time, the LCD panel was still working, and the screen was changed every now and then to a new picture or paper. Again, this gave people something to aim for, and the changes were often reflected on the participant's own screens. Whilst people browsed the speakers were on hand to answer questions or help with problems. Once or twice people had difficulties with understanding how to navigate through databases, but they soon got the hang of it when helped.

A total of ten people out of the fifteen who attended filled in the evaluation questionnaire at the end of the session. Their replies are displayed in Figure 5.

Figure 5

There was a positive response to the layout of the Home Page and the Table of Contents. Only one person expressed some doubts about registration, although the participants were told that they had to register and that the Journal was free. The Computing Officer was dubious as to whether beginners would overcome the obstacle of having to register. Navigation, structure and organisation of the journal were perceived well.

The illustrations did not score so well. Given that there were several people directly involved with the production of publications or illustrations, this perhaps was no surprise. In particular, one of the graphics officers had very high expectations of the images which were not met. The line drawings caused some concern, and to be utilising the Web fully it was felt that the user should be able to interrogate the object (whether drawn or photographed) from every angle. However, the maps were considered to be quite acceptable. In general, this aspect of the Journal scored quite low.

There were a range of scores for the question about preferring an e-journal to a hard copy journal. Obviously, there were mixed feelings about it, hinting at some reservations about the technology involved. However, the reaction overall was positive.

Written comments showed keen perception of the issues involved with producing an electronic journal. One person commented that the papers were for the most part not written for the Web and did not really exploit the medium. Another would have liked more pointers on how to download pictures and text as she realised that if the journal was accessed via a modem it would take a long time to read. She also wanted to be able to compare images side by side, perhaps using images from other sources. The comment was made that perhaps multi-column text might be easier to read.

In contrast to the Undergraduates, this group showed a much greater sense of what they wanted from a journal. This highlighted the need to hold workshops with other different groups of people, besides those in Higher Education, to gain further distinct perspectives.

2.1.3 Environmental Archaeology Unit Research Forum

On 30th October 1996 the Environmental Archaeology Unit (EAU) based at the University of York ran a Research Forum at The King's Manor where the Journal is based. The Journal had a paper (the Archaeobotanical Computer Database) which was of interest to the participants so a drop-in session was held at the lunch break to give participants a chance to view it. Only a few people attended, but one or two comments were made. In particular, one person said she thought it was an excellent resource, however, she would only be able to look at while she had free access to the Internet. She also observed that it would cost a lot to view the paper via a modem.

2.2 Access statistics

The Journal displays its web statistics at: http://intarch.ac.uk/news/accesstats.html. To give a broad idea of the statistics for the Journal, see below examples of daily, monthly and part of the domain statistics as at July 1st 1997:

Figure 6

Figure 7

Figure 8

Domain Report as at 1st July 1997, showing a small section of domains that host the Journal

The statistics are linked into the Journal's web pages so that any reader can view it. The statistics from the server have been closely examined in Alan Vince's paper that was given at the CAA 1997 conference in Birmingham and then published in Internet Archaeology, Issue 3 (http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue3/vince_index.html).

The number of registered readers is displayed on the Home Page for each issue of the Journal. In July 1997 the Journal reached a total of 3,600 registered readers.

It is clear that a particular advantage of an electronic journal over a printed journal is that the number of times the journal is consulted is recorded. The registered readership can be monitored for the amount of times they actually use the Journal and their habits when they do so. For example, do they browse, or concentrate on the pages and follow the structure of the paper? See Alan Vince's paper for a discussion of these questions(http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue3/vince_index.html).

2.3 Informal feedback

Informal feedback is counted as the comments, praise, criticism which are unsolicited. This arrives in various ways. The main way is via email, when contacts are made through numerous avenues - such as enquiries (often to do with electronic publishing in general) and the mailing list, intarch-interest. The following comments were received within the last 12 months:


[cut ...]

Thanks Alan, now I have seen it I can see why I did not remember it ... it is not made up of any of my standard sequences of username/password cycles I tend to use ... this simple one was to good for me! ... well I will not forget it this time!!!! :-)

Thanks again and congratulations on such a professional site (as good a any of the best on the www *****)
Regards [cut ...]


[cut ...]

I am impressed by your on-line application to the field of archaeology. I have always been fascinated by the field but do to the occupation I was in never really got the time to play. Now I'm happy to say I have much more time and I'm in a place that I may get the chance to get involved in some of the fun. Being somewhat of a novice (is that an understatement) in the field, if I ask what sound like stupid questions, there not I'm just learning, but I'll take all the information you can give.

Keep up the good work and I'll be looking for to all the new information in the future.

Have a good day today and better one tomorrow!

iii) [cut ...]

Humanist Discussion Group, Vol. 10, No. 666.
Center for Electronic Texts in the Humanities (Princeton/Rutgers)
Centre for Computing in the Humanities, King's College London
Information at http://www.princeton.edu/~mccarty/humanist/

[Editorial note. I pass along the following message, addressed to registered users of Internet Archaeology, (http://intarch.york.ac.uk/), to encourage all Humanists to take a close look at this new online journal. Well worth the mouse-clicks and (if you live in Europe) also the connect charges for the local call. --WM]

[cuts ...]

iv) [cut ...]

Good morning Sandra, many thanks for the speedy reply to my request for more info re web pages. Haven't had time to look in depth at yours but first impressions are impressive. I like the scanned images-decent quality for a change. This whole field of e-publishing looks exciting, it is somewhere to publish 7000 post hole sections anyway! Will keep in touch, all the best with the next issue.

Another way is to publicise Internet Archaeology events and papers via other mailing lists. The major mailing list for British archaeology is called 'britarch', and a lively discussion ensued when publicising the visit of one of the Journal's authors to the University.

Conferences are seen as a priority to publicise the existence of the Journal and these are excellent places to receive informal feedback. One staff member was present at the Institute of Field Archaeologist's Annual conference in September 1996. Here, there were several computers available for use to demonstrate the Journal. Unfortunately, the computers were behind a glass panel, and it proved difficult to get people to come in and explore the Journal. However, any feedback received was positive. It is planned to be present at the conference again in September 1997, but a more noticeable format will be adopted in the form of a time-tabled workshop, along with the display computers.

2.4 Netguide Live Award

In February 1997 the Journal was given a Platinum Award by NetGuide which screened over 100,000 URLs and reviewed more than 50,000 sites. The Platinum Award went to only 5,000 of the Web's best sites.

This is what Netguide said about the Journal:
"Internet Archaeology, an online journal published by the University of York, features research documents of high-level, scholarly work. The seriousness of IA's purpose can be readily seen in articles from Issue One, one of which examines the uses of Geographical Information Systems and VRML in archaeological investigations. Another piece discusses excavation methodology. Researchers wishing to contribute material to IA can find guidelines here for submitting proposals. With expansive range and uncluttered design, Internet Archaeology reveals itself to be a well-documented, cleanly crafted vehicle for serious students of ancient cultures. 5 stars (out of 5) for Content and Personality and 4 stars for Design"

2.5 Steering Committee

The Steering Committee has met once since August 1996. Issues discussed, amongst other things, were the creation of a charitable trust, the creation of a worldwide editorial panel, and the changing of refereeing criteria.

2.6 Technical Panel

The Technical Panel has met on 23rd October 1996 and 21st January 1997. This Panel meets frequently due to the high technical demands of the Journal, though it is anticipated that it will meet less in the future. At present, the Panel provides advice and feedback on the introduction of new technology, such as Java applets, how papers should be cited, and the use of standards.

2.7 Editorial Board

The Editorial Board has met twice since August 1996, on 4th November 1996 and 16th April 1997. This Board discusses the broader issues of editorial policy and provides guidance on the format of new features.

2.8 Executive Committee

The Executive Committee meets on average twice a month, and is attended regularly by the Managing Editor, the Assistant Editor, the Project Director and the Project Manager. The Head of the Archaeology Department of University of York and a representative of the British Academy are also entitled to attend these meetings, but this rarely proves practical. These meetings discuss the day to day running of the Journal, and wider issues such as publicity, finances, etc. The suitability of papers for publication is discussed, and the appearance of the Journal is given close attention. This meeting is a key forum for the giving and receiving of evaluative feedback at staff level.

3.0 Integration of evaluation

The integration of feedback is an ongoing process. Questions and queries about all aspects of the Journal are constantly fed back to the various advisory bodies and considered frequently at Executive Committee meetings.

4.0 Future Plans

4.1 Workshops

Further workshops are being planned. Particular user populations pinpointed for evaluation are:

Local society members: The population is likely to be older and may not be familiar with the technology involved. However, their views will be a valuable contribution, and running a workshop for this population will contribute toward culture change.

Smaller archaeological organisations: The YAT workshop involved members of a large organisation, where there specific departments covering excavation, archives, and publications. The smaller archaeological organisations are more typical of archaeological fieldworking, where staff are individually responsible for aspects of archaeological work - from excavation to archive or publication.

Post graduate students: This population will be very much concerned with research and will have particular needs. Access to the Internet will be relatively easy, and it is likely that they will be familiar with the technology

Undergraduates: The opportunity can be taken to integrate the Journal into the teaching of the undergraduates at the University of York. This will supply a useful source of feedback.

4.2 Focus groups

It is envisaged that the programme of workshops will continue for another year, so as to gain feedback from a wide cross-section of the population. From the results of the workshops, there may be further questions to concentrate on that could be best explored by focus groups. The format of these will be considered at the end of the next year.

4.3 Conferences

Internet Archaeology staff will continue to promote the Journal and invite feedback at conferences in the coming year. There will be staff present at the Computer Applications in Archaeology 1998 conference in Barcelona, the Society for American Archaeology conference in Seattle, at the Institute of Field Archaeologists conference in Manchester, and at BULISC 97 in Bournemouth. Other opportunities to speak about the Journal may appear during the year.

5.0 Conclusion

The evaluation of the Journal is a constant process. Various avenues contribute to improving the deliverable product, and due consideration is giving to the feedback given by the various stakeholders in the project. The advisory panels provide vital ideas and comments about how to formulate the Journal. Workshops can explore how the end users approach the Journal and what they think of it. The programme of evaluation helps to keep the Journal moving forward, and stimulates change.



Appendix XII

Web server statistics for Internet Archaeology

1 August 1996 - 31 July 1997


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