There is little evidence for the use of pipe bowls within muffle bodies in a regular or consistent pattern except where they occur in the outer edge of the base below or as part of the wall junction. Figures 13 to 16 illustrate examples of pipe bowls used in this position.
Figure 13: Pipe bowls in muffle bases, a - Southwark, b - Guilford, c - Chelmsford.
From Southwark, typologically dated to the last quarter of the seventeenth century, the pipes are laid parallel to one another with their bowls in the same horizontal plane as the stems (Figure 13a). From Guilford, Chapel Street (Figure 13b), Quarry Street (not illustrated) and Chelmsford (Figure 13c), all of similar date, the pipes are placed with their bowls in the same vertical plane as the stems. The evidence is not conclusive but they appear to be placed radially.
Figure 14: Pipe bowls in muffle base, Longwell Green, near Bristol.
From Longwell Green, near Bristol, from the second half of the eighteenth century, there is a double row of pipes placed radially with their bowls in the same vertical plane as the stems (Figure 14).
From both Aylesbury and St. Albans (not illustrated) the evidence is inconclusive, but consistent with a line of vertical bowls within a base of rounded profile such as that at Longwell Green or Waterford (Figures 14 & 15).
Figure 15: Pipe bowls in muffle base from Waterford
The Waterford example dates from the second half of the eighteenth century. The composite section Figure 15f is made up by overlapping the three non joining pieces Figure 15e using the included pipe bowls as the register. If this interpretation is correct and the base stems are horizontal, then the lower wall stage is inclined outwards. This parallels the muffle construction illustrated by Good in 1813 (see Figure 90) echoed by Watkinson, likening the muffle to an egg (see Appendix 2).
Figure 16: Pipe bowls in muffle base, Bristol, Temple Backs.
The muffle base from Bristol, Temple Backs, from the first quarter of the nineteenth century, also features a wall inclining outwards (Figure 16). This muffle has a double row of bowls vertically inclined with their stems radiating from the centre.
A single case of pipe bowls used systematically elsewhere in the muffle body is that of St. Albans, 1680-1730, where three separate fragments have bowls inverted in the rim.
Random examples of bowls included in the muffle wall are recorded at Bristol, Gravel Street, 1780-1820; Bristol, Lower Castle Street, date uncertain; Lewes, Pipe Passage, 1830-70; Truro, Pydar Street, 1800-50; and Winchester, St. John Street, 1800-50. Irish examples come from Olaf Street, Arundel Square and High Street, Waterford, 1750-1800.
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Last updated: Wed Oct 9 1996