We thank Professor Vidyanath Jha, who shared with us his expert knowledge of E. ferox. Mr Ranjay Kumar Jha organised the field visit to Madhubani District, Bihar, India, and along with Mr Bhogi Mukhiya helped us to document procedures. We are grateful to G. Hivroni for the graphic design (Figures 1 and 4), Gabi Laron for photography of Figure 10a, and to Dr Y. Langsham for the SEM photography. K.A. and S.P. thank the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education for logistic aid. Botanical remains are stored at the Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290000, Israel. At the faculty, the macrobotanical remains are stored at the National Natural History Collection (seeds). We are grateful to the two reviewers: Professor Lyn Wadley and an anonymous reviewer who helped us improve the article.

The study of the fish remains was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (Grant No. 300/06) to the Center of Excellence Project Title: 'The Effect of Climate Change on the Environment and Hominins of the Upper Jordan Valley between ca. 800Ka and 700Ka ago as a Basis for Prediction of Future Scenarios' and the Irene Levi Sala CARE Archeological Foundation.