Figure 5: Procedures involved in the collection of E. ferox nuts, Madhubani District, Bihar, India; (A) General view of men of the fishing community involved in the gathering of E. ferox (Makhana) nuts; note one type of collecting basket in the background; (B) Close-up of E. ferox, showing the flower and characteristic leaves; (C) View of a diver manipulating a bamboo pole that aids in demarcating areas selected for underwater gathering of E. ferox nuts; (D) Diver surfacing after gathering E. ferox nuts using a special type of basket (Gaanja), with an aluminum pot also used for collection; (E) Adolescent boy collecting stray nuts that rise to the water surface from the pond bed during collection; (F) Divers (underwater) manipulating a large basket (Auka) in which nuts are collected. Note the two hands at the edge of the basket. (Image credit: authors)
Figure 5

Internet Archaeology is an open access journal. Except where otherwise noted, content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY) Unported licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that attribution to the author(s), the title of the work, the Internet Archaeology journal and the relevant URL/DOI are given.

University of York legal statements