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Appendix 3: The Clay Tobacco Pipes

There follows a summary of pipe fragments, in date order, including details of makers, where known.

List of makers

Mid-17th century

Type BRST 3 and 4

c. 1640-70. Only two small, barrel-shaped bowls of this date were recovered, both retrieved from contexts (1126 and 1185), which also contained pipe fragments of probable later 17th century date. One of the bowls is marked with the initials, 'PE', incuse, on the pedestal heel (see Figure 66).

Makers: Philip Edwards I or II, fl.1649-1702/3 (Jarrett 2013, 224, 228 and 230; Price 2014, 1448 ff.)

Philip Edwards I is known to have set up his own pipemaking business some time after 1649/50, and was working in the Lewins Mead area of St Michael's parish. He was one of the more important founder members of the Bristol Pipemakers Guild in 1652 and one of the feoffees of the St Michael's church lands from c. 1655 to 1663, implying that he was of a certain standing in the community, perhaps unusual for a pipemaker. Philip I had died by 1683.

Philip Edwards II may have taken over the family business some time after 1680/1. It is also possible that Edwards II may have established and run his own business up until his death in 1702/3, as certain pipes of a similar style bear the mark 'ED/WAR/DS'.

Pipes bearing the initials, 'PE', are routinely found on excavations in Bristol, and have also been found in Somerset, Gloucestershire, North Devon, Herefordshire, Glamorgan and Monmouthshire (Price 2014, 1465). Edwards' pipes have also been recovered from sites along the North American seaboard and Jamaica (Price 2014, 1465).

Figure 66
Figure 66: Tobacco pipe bowl fragment showing initials 'PE' on pedestal heel. Probable product of Philip Edwards I or II (fl. 1649-1702/3) (context 1126)

Type BRST 9 and 10

c. 1660-90. Two bowls of these types were recovered during the excavation (from Contexts 1037 and 1046), both with pedestal heels. The Type 10 example bears an abraded (possibly erased) cartouche.

Three further bowls of this date were recovered (two from the above contexts and one unstratified), more closely resembling Oswald Type 15 (smallish, forward-pointing bowls with spur heels), and dated by Oswald to 1660-80.

One of these Oswald Type 15 bowls (unstratified) does not fit in to the Bristol typology established by Jarrett (Jarrett 2013, 217-24). It bears an indistinct cartouche, showing an initial, 'E' or 'F' above a possible fleur de lys, with a star motif below (Figure 65). The maker remains unidentified, despite extensive search of marked bowls in published sources (Walker 1971; Jackson and Price 1974; Jarrett 2013; Peacey 1979).

Late 17th-early 18th century

Type BRST 15

c. 1690-1740. Together with Type 15a, this is the most common bowl type recovered during the excavation. Type 15 included seven of the marked bowls and one with stylised leaf decoration. Twenty bowls of this type were recovered, from a total of fourteen contexts.

Unstratified marked bowls of Type 15 included bowls of the makers, Isaac Evans and Israel Carey I/James Jenkins. A further Jenkins bowl was retrieved from Context 1046. The Evans bowl bears a characteristic cartouche, showing a shield containing an anchor, flanked by the name, 'EVANS'. The Carey/Jenkins bowl is decorated with four applied roundels, but is not named.

Makers: Isaac Evans, fl. c. 1700-1712/3 (Price 2014, 1555 ff.).

Isaac Evans is known to have established a pipemaking business in Broadmead in 1700 (Price 2014, 1588-9). Pipes stamped with both Evans' mark and that of Robert Tippett II (below) have been recovered from sites in Bristol (Walker 1971)1971, Figure 11A g; Jackson and Price 1974, 94; Price 2014, 1590), suggesting that the two pipemakers may have been working in partnership. Certainly Tippett is known to have taken over Evans' Broadmead premises after the latter's death in 1712/13 (Price 2014, 1590). Evans served as master of the Bristol Pipemakers' Guild in 1710, and was instrumental in drawing up the guild's mould-size agreement in the same year (Price 2014, 1591). He died in 1712/13 and his Broadmead premises were taken over, first by Robert Tippett II and later by John Squibb (see below and Price 2014, 1555).

Evans' pipes are commonly recovered from excavations in Bristol, often featuring an anchor as part of his mark, as in the example from Wade Street (Price 2014, 1596). Pipes of the same maker have also been recovered from sites in North America, Jamaica and the West Indies (Price 2014, 1596).

Maker: James Jenkins, fl. 1710-c. 1739 (Walker 1971, 21, figure 21; Jarrett 2013, 221, 230; Price 2014, 2376ff.).

Jenkins is known to have been working in Bristol from at least 1710, when he signed the mould-size agreement of the Bristol Pipemakers' Guild (Price 2014, 2376). With his wife, Mary, he was recorded as living and working in the Lewins Mead area of Bristol between 1715 and 1741 (Price 2014, 2378-9), and in 1734 is known to have served as Master of the Bristol Pipemakers' Guild (Price 2014, 2380).

Development work at 21, Lewins Mead revealed a large number of pipe wasters, most marked 'I/IENKI/NS' or 'II', together with a smaller number of pipes marked with the marks of other makers (Jackson and Price 1974, 121). It is more than likely that these fragments represent waste from Jenkins' factory, and that he was also making use of the discarded or purchased moulds of other makers (Jackson and Price 1974, 121).

Pipes bearing the above marks are occasionally recovered from excavations in Bristol, and have been recorded at Bath, and also Port Royal, Jamaica (Jackson and Price 1974, 121).

Maker: Israel Carey I, fl. c. 1756-1787 (Price 2014, 807 ff.).

Israel Carey I is known to have established his pipemaking business in Lewins Mead in 1756 or shortly thereafter, occupying premises formerly occupied by the pipemaker, John Tippett II (not related to the Robert Tippett family, below; Price 2014, 807, 821). In common with other major Bristol pipemakers (in fact, the majority of those whose pipes were recovered from Wade Street (below)) he is known to have run a successful export trade, exporting pipes and pipe clay to Ireland, the American colonies and the West Indies (Price 2014, 827-8). In 1782, he relocated to larger premises in Castle Green, and diversified into other retail businesses during the decline in the pipemaking industry in the later 18th century (see below, Price 2014, 828, 831-2). After his death in 1787, the business was continued by his son, John, and later by his grandson, Israel II, under whose auspices the factory was successively relocated, to the Redcross Street/Old Market area, and later to St Jude's (Price 2014).

Kiln waste bearing Carey's mark was recovered from a site in Whitefriars Lane in 1973 (Price 2014, 821) and further dumped pipe material from Lower Castle Street (nearest to Carey's second workshop), dating to the 1780s/90s (Jackson and Price 1974, 115). The latter material also included pipes made by Robert Tippett III or possibly Tippett IV, who is thought to have had a workshop at nearby Rosemary Street (Jackson and Price 1974, and see below on the Tippett family). A further dump of Carey's kiln waste, dating from the time of either Israel I or his son, John, was recovered near Newfoundland Street in 1986 (Price 2014, 842).

Carey's pipes are commonly recovered from sites in Bristol, including Cabot Circus (Jarrett 2013, 233-4; Jackson and Price 1974, 35, 115).

Of the stratified Type 15 bowls, one is marked, 'I /ABBO/TT', and was retrieved from Context 1112.

Maker: James Abbott, fl.1682-1718 (Jarrett 2013, 230; Jackson and Price 1974, 88; Price 2014, 16 ff.).

James Abbott is known to have been running his own pipemaking business by the year 1682, when he is recorded as taking on his first apprentice, and is recorded as living in Maudlin Lane by 1689.

In 1690, Abbott is known to have moved to Wine Street, where he took over the pipemaking business of his second wife, who had been married to Edward Randell I (Price 2014, 18). In 1710, Abbott's name appears fourth in the list of signatories to the mould-size agreement of the Bristol Pipemakers' Guild, implying that, by this time, he was of some standing within the guild. By 1718, Abbott had died, but his premises (and business) were taken over by his widow (and third wife; Price 2014, 22).

A waster from Abbott's kiln has been found during excavations at St Bartholomews Hospital, Lewins Mead, and further Abbott pipes have been recovered from sites elsewhere in Bristol, products of either his first factory in Maudlin Lane or his second in Wine Street (Price 2014, 17, 21). Abbott pipes have also been recovered along the Virginian seaboard and from sites in Jamaica (Price 2014).

It is possible that another of the marked bowls, which bears the initial, 'I', within an abraded cartouche, is the work of either James Abbott (above), or James Jenkins (above).

A further marked bowl of this type is the work of another, as yet unidentified, manufacturer with initials 'I/OB', within a cartouche (see Jarrett 2013, 226, figure 4.20.32, 230). Jarrett (2013) notes the use of the three initials as a device for distinguishing the maker from the numerous other makers with initials 'IB' at this period (Jackson and Price 2014, 29-30). A second bowl from the same context (1176) is probably the work of the same maker, but the bowl is fractured, leaving only the lower initial, 'O', visible. It is possible that the bowl with only the initial 'I' remaining (above) may also be the work of the 'IOB' maker.

The last marked bowl of this type bears the initials, 'IM', within a cartouche, and was retrieved from Context 1115. Price suggests that these initials are the mark of one of two early 18th century Bristol makers, John Macey (or Massey) I or II (Price 2014, 2610).

Makers: John Macey I or II, fl. c. 1706-38 (Jarrett 2013, 233; Price 2014, 2607 ff.).

John Macey I is known to have been running his own business by 1706 (Price 2014, 2607), at a workshop, probably in Temple Street, which is known to have existed between c. 1716 and 1728 (Price 2014, 2608). Macey senior had died by 1727/8 (Price 2014, 2610). It is possible that his widow continued to run the business in Temple Street until 1734/5 (Price 2014, 2611).

Macey's son, John Macey II, ran a pipemaking business in Castle Street, between c. 1724 and c. 1730, a business which he had taken over from Richard Carter I (below), on marrying the latter's widow (Price 2014, 782, 2614). John Macey II had died by 1731, but it is likely that his own widow carried on the business until c. 1738 (Price 2014, 2615).

Pipes marked 'JOHN MASE', attributed to John Macey I or II, have been recovered from sites in Bristol and also in Port Royal, Jamaica (Price 2014, 2610). 'IM' pipes are less certainly attributable, but are thought to have been produced by one of the two above makers (Price 2014).

One of the bowls of Bristol Type 15, from Context 1091, has stylised leaf decoration, with dots, along the upper seam, and leaf decoration along the lower seam.

Type BRST 15a

c. 1690-1740. Bowl Type 15a is a slightly more angular variant of Type 15 (Jarrett 2013, 221), although the distinction between the two types was not always evident. Of the sixteen bowls of this type, one, from Context 1009, bears the maker's mark, the incuse initials, 'CH', on the top of the bowl, and see also BRST 16, below, for Hicks bowl from Context 1138.

Maker: Charles Hicks, fl. c. 1721/2-1741/2 (Jarret 2013, 234; Jackson and Price 1974, 97, no. 108; Price 2014, 2171 ff.).

Charles Hicks was probably established as a maker by 1721-2, when he signed the Bristol Pipemakers' Guild mould-size agreement. He was living and working in St Leonard parish, possibly near Baldwin Street, by 1722. In 1723, he was stated to be living in St Stephen's parish (Price 2014, 2171), and between 1726 and 1742 probably remained in the Baldwin Street area (Price 2014). In 1734 he served as co-master of the Bristol Pipemakers' Guild (Price 2014, 2173), and later as master in 1736 and 1738 (Price 2014, 2174). Hicks had died by 1741/2 (Price 2014, 2175).

Pipes marked with the initials, 'CH', are occasionally found on excavations in Bristol, and are probably products of his workshop (Price 2014).

Type BRST 16

c. 1690-1720/40. Ten pipes of this type were recovered, with pedestal heels and quite angular bowls (Jarrett 2013, 221). Four of this type of bowl bear makers' marks, either within a cartouche on the right side of the bowl (two examples) or incuse on the upper face. The incuse examples, from Context 1112 (excavation) and Context 184 (watching brief) bear the initials 'RC', which have been associated with the Carter pipemaking family, of Bristol (Richard Carter I or II; Price 2014, 787; Jarrett 2013, 231), although Jackson and Price list other makers with the same initials working at this date (Jackson and Price 1974, 36-7).

Makers: Richard Carter I and II, fl. 1710-48 (Jackson and Price 1974, 36; Jarrett 2013, 227, 231; Price 2014, 782 ff.).

Richard Carter I established his pipe factory in Castle Street c. 1710, but had died by 1720, when his widow, Rebecca, took over the business (Price 2014, 782, 789). Richard and Rebecca had taken on at least two apprentices, one of whom was Charles Hicks (above). In 1723, Rebecca married the pipemaker, John Macey II (see above), who took over the business in his turn, until his death in 1731 (Price 2014). The family business continued under Rebecca, and later under Carter's son, Richard Carter II, until 1743-4, and under the eldest son, James, until it finally closed c. 1748 (Price 2014).

Pipes with these initials are held in the Bristol City Museum collections (Jackson and Price 1974, 87), and have been excavated at city centre sites such as Cabot Circus (Jarrett 2013, 227, 231).

Of the two remaining marked bowls of BRST 16, one, from Context 1138, is probably the work of the aforementioned Bristol maker, Charles Hicks (fl. 1722-41/2; Jarrett 2013, 232, figure 4.20.30), as it bears the initials 'CH', separated by a decorative motif. The fourth marked bowl of this type, from Context 1046, bears the initials 'II', within a raised cartouche, and is probably the product of the maker James Jenkins (above; Price 2014, 2380).

As is the case for the earlier period, a very small number of bowls do not conform exactly to the forms of the Bristol Type Series. One has a chunky pedestal heel and rounded, forward-pointing bowl, more similar to a Gloucestershire Type 9 of 1690-1720 (Peacey 1979, 46, figure 2). The second also more closely resembles a Gloucestershire example, a Gloucestershire Type 5, with pedestal heel and slight 'belly' on upper face (1670-1700) (Peacey 1979).

18th century

Type BRST 18

c. 1700-40. Only four bowls/bowl fragments of this type were recovered (from Contexts 185, 1086, 1094 and 1190), including one bearing the incuse initials, 'WS'.

Maker: possibly William Spencer, fl. 1734-35/6 (Price 2014, 3918 ff.), although other Bristol pipemakers with these initials are known to have been working in Bristol at a slightly later date (Jackson and Price 1974, 72).

Spencer is known to have been running a pipemaking business in Lewins Mead between c. 1734 and 1735 (Price 2014, 3919). By 1736, his premises are described as void, and he is known to have left the city by 1738/9 (Price 2014, 3920/1).

Type BRST 21

c. 1730-40. Thirteen bowls or bowl fragments of this type were recovered during the excavation, all spurred bowls, four with leaf decoration on the seams (see Type 15). One of the bowls (from watching brief Context 152) bears the royal (Hanoverian) coat of arms of the recently formed United Kingdom, with an image of the sun on the opposite side of the bowl (Figure 67; Jackson and Price 1974, 115, 131-2; Jackson 2002b, 95).

Figure 67
Figure 67: Complete tobacco pipe bowl showing Hanoverian coat of arms of newly formed United Kingdom. Probable product of Robert Tippett II or III (fl. 1660-1722) (context 152)

Makers: Robert Tippett II or III, fl. c. 1688-c. 1722 or later (see below; Jackson and Price 1974, 115, 131-2; Price 2014, 4069 ff.).

The Tippett family were one of the most important pipemaking families in late 17th/early 18th century Bristol (Price 2014, 4069). Robert Tippett II, son of the pipemaker, Robert Tippett I (fl. c. 1660-79), is known to have occupied premises in Lewins Mead between c. 1688 and his death in 1722 (Price 2014, 4080, 4084, 4092). In 1710, his signature came second in the list of those signing the Bristol Mould-size Agreement, suggesting that he was warden of the Bristol Pipemakers' Guild (Price 2014, 4081). Between 1713 and 1722, Tippett is also known to have had at least a part share in premises in Broadmead (Price 2014, 4082), although it is not known whether the latter, or his premises in Lewins Mead (or both) were the site of his factory (Price 2014, and see also Isaac Evans, above).

Robert Tippett III, fl.1714-1715 (Price 2014, 4094).

Robert Tippett III is known to have been running a business as a pipemaker in 1714, when he is known to have taken on an apprentice, but had died by 1715.

Debris, probably from the kilns of Robert Tippett II, has been recovered from two sites in Bristol, at Whitson Street, off Lower Maudlin Street, and at Rosemary Street, off Broadmead (Price 2014, 4086). Pipes bearing the Hanoverian coat of arms, similar to that recovered at Wade Street, have been recovered from Upper Maudlin Street, Bristol (Jackson 2002b, 95), from Rosemary Street (see above, Jackson and Price 1974, 131-2) and also from sites elsewhere in southern England, notably London (Jackson 2002b, 95), the latter not necessarily products of the Bristolian maker.

Robert Tippett pipes, products of Tippett I, II or III, are commonly found on sites in Bristol, but have also been recovered from North Somerset, Gloucestershire, and sites on the Atlantic seaboard of North America and from Jamaica (Price 2014, 4094). In North America, Robert Tippett pipes are quite commonly found in contexts dating to the mid- to late 18th century, which is surprising, as the last working Robert Tippett (II) is known to have died in 1722 (Price 2014). Price suggests that it is likely that his daughter and son-in-law would have continued to maintain the business, at least until the latter's death in 1738 (Price 2014), but it is also possible that there was an as yet unknown Robert Tippett IV, who may have been working in the later 18th century, possibly in partnership with the pipemaker, Israel Carey I (Price 2014). This may explain the slightly later style of the Robert Tippett pipes recovered from Wade Street, which date stylistically to between c. 1730 and 1800 (above).

Type BRST 22

c. 1730-80. One possible fragment of this type was recovered from Context 1009, a stem fragment with a very large oval, pedestal heel and truncated bowl.

Type BRST 23

c. 1730-1800. Five bowls of this type were recovered, all relatively upright, straight-sided bowls, one unstratified example bearing the maker's initials, 'RT', either side of the spur heel. This is likely to be a product of the workshop of Robert Tippett II or of the short-lived Robert Tippett III (above).

A further example (from a large deposit of unsmoked pipe fragments to the rear of 26 Wade Street, Context 174) bears the initials 'JW' to either side of the spur heel. Although stylistically dating to pre-1800, the latter pipe is more likely to be the product of one of several later manufacturers living and/or working at the above address who bore these initials, and the pipe is therefore discussed with the 19th century material.

19th century

Perhaps surprisingly, the majority of 19th-century pipes were recovered from a single context (174), a discrete dump of apparently unsmoked pipe fragments, recovered from the corner of a possible cellar, more than likely belonging to the pipe manufacturers, J. Wilkey or the White family, known to have been operating at 26 Wade Street in the mid-late 19th century (above). The assemblage from Context 174 includes bowls of Types 23, 26 and 27, dating to the late 18th to the mid-late 19th century, most of which are decorated (see Figure 68), and one of which bears the initials 'JW', the probable mark of James or Joseph White II, or possibly of John Wilkey (above).

Figure 68
Figure 68: Selection of 19th-century clay tobacco pipes from context 174, probable products of the pipe factory at 26 Wade Street, run by the White/Wilkey families

For details of John Wilkey and of the White family, see 26 Wade Street.

Pipes bearing the initials, 'JW' have been recovered from at least two sites in Bristol, one at Lamb Street, St Jude's (Jackson and Price 1974, 133) and the second at Monk Street, St Pauls (Beckey and Price 2006, 115-20). Both assemblages were dated to the mid-19th century, and are thought to be the products of James or Joseph White.

The assemblage also includes one example of a green-glazed mouth-piece, a 19th-century innovation, probably introduced for both decorative reasons and as a preventative measure against mouth cancer, also noted among pipes recovered from Monk Street (above; Beckey 2000, 90-3; Price et al. 1984, 263 ff.; Beckey et al. 2003, 101, 106; Beckey and Price 2006, 118).

Type BRST 25

c. 1820-60. Only one bowl of this type was recovered, a very thick-walled bowl fragment with fractured spur and raised fluting decoration, from Context 1164 (see Jarrett 2013, 234, fig. 4.23.7).

Type BRST 26

c. 1840-80. Four bowls of this type were recovered, including one unstratified upright bowl, with the initials 'SR' either side of a stubby spur heel.

Makers: Samuel Richards II or III, fl. c. 1780-1817 (Price 2014, 3459 ff.; Jackson and Price 1974, 127-8).

Richards was the son of Samuel Richards I, a Bristol pipemaker who had moved to Woolwich in the late 18th century (Price 2014, 3459). Samuel II is known to have been working in St Thomas Street, Bristol, between c. 1780 and 1817 (Price 2014, 3460). He became one of the most prominent Bristol makers, exporting pipes to Ireland between 1790 and 1808 (Price 2014, 3462-3). His St Thomas Street factory closed in 1817 (Price 2014, 3471).

His son, Samuel Richards III, is known to have been working in Avon Street, Temple, Bristol, in 1812, but probably left Bristol between 1820 and 1830 (Price 2014, 3472).

Kiln debris of Samuel Richards has been found at the junction of Victoria Street and Long Row (Jackson and Price 1974, 127-8). 'SR' pipes regularly turn up on excavations in Bristol and also in the neighbouring counties (Price 2014, 3471).

The remaining bowls of this type, all from Context 174, include three with stylised foliage decoration on the seam and rosettes on the heel, and one moulded in the form of an acorn (Jackson and Price 1974, 135, 140).

Type BRST 27

c. 1840 onwards. Eight bowls of this type were recovered, one unstratified and seven from Context 174 (above). The bowls are decorated, either with a decorative ribbed flange, or with basket-work decoration, similar to those illustrated by Jackson and Price under 'various 19th century pipes made in Bristol which often turn up in excavations' (Jackson and Price 1974, 136).

Type BRST 28

c. 1840 onwards. One unstratified bowl of this 'Irish' type was recovered during the excavation, a tall, upright bowl with long spur heel. A second bowl fragment, possibly of this type, was also recovered from Context 1038.

Site phasing from the pipe evidence

Many of the pipe fragments were recovered from dump deposits or levelling layers, which may well have been imported onto the site either immediately prior to the early 18th-century first phase of development of the area or during later construction work. The stratigraphically earliest of these dump layers, present over much of the site and recorded variously as Contexts 152, 1115 and 1126, also yielded one of the earliest pipe bowls, a product of Philip Edwards I or II (fl. 1649-1702), as well as a bowl bearing the Hanoverian coat of arms of mid-18th century date, and pottery including 18th//19th century redwares. A stratigraphically slightly later deposit, a possible garden soil, also possibly redeposited, and similarly present over much of the excavation area (Contexts 1111, 1112, 1114 and 1190) also yielded clay tobacco pipe of 18th century date, together with 18th/19th century redware.

Excavated features conformed to a similar pattern, in that the majority of features from which datable pipe fragments were retrieved yielded pipe of Bristol Type Series 15, 16 and 21, ranging in date between 1690 and 1740, and pottery no later in date than 18th/19th century redwares (above).

One of the few deposits to yield later pipe, solely of mid-18th/19th century date, was Context 174, recorded during the watching brief, which was also unique in being composed primarily of unsmoked pipe fragments. This has led to the suggestion that the pipes within this deposit represent waste material from the White/Wilkey families' factory recorded at 26 Wade Street (see above). It should be noted that no further physical evidence for pipe manufacture, in terms of kiln furniture, muffles, saggars etc. was recorded in association with the above deposit, or, indeed, anywhere else on the site.

With the exception of the above deposit, the pipe evidence would thus suggest that activity on the site, in terms of the importation of levelling deposits and the creation of many of the cut features, commenced during the period between 1690 and 1740, and was uniformly present over the site as a whole.

The very small number of pipe bowls of pre-18th century date were either unstratified, or were residual finds within later contexts.

Comparanda

The assemblage seems to be fairly typical of clay tobacco pipe assemblages from central Bristol, in terms of both dating and makers identified. The very large assemblage (3,377 fragments) recently excavated at the nearby Cabot Circus development was similarly weighted towards the late 17th/early 18th century (250 datable fragments) as opposed to 83 fragments of mid-18th century date and only 37 fragments from the late 18th/early 19th century (Jarrett 2013, 228-34). Of the named makers whose pipes occur within the present assemblage, most are commonly known from sites within the central Bristol area (above). Previous archaeological investigations on Wade Street itself (at no. 46; Etheridge 2009; Avon Archaeological Unit 2000) have yielded pipes of Isaac Evans (among others), whose pipes were recovered during the present excavation. The only pipemaker whose products were recovered during the present excavation and whose work is not represented in the archaeological record is William Spencer (the possible maker of the 'WS' pipe from cellar fill, Context 185). From documentary records, it appears that Spencer was only working in Bristol for a total of two years, between 1734 and 1735 (above), so his absence from the archaeological record is, perhaps, not surprising.

The discrete deposit of 19th-century fragments, possible waste material from the kilns of the White or Wilkey families, should be viewed in the light of other 19th-century dumped deposits in the vicinity (Group 1 and Group 2; Beckey 2000, above).


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