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Site name Cheddar 2, Tynings Farm (N), T10
Site number 298
Burial codes 4005 4009 4022 4024 4025 4028 4030 4035 4041 4048 4051 4053 4065 4075 4084 4093 4098 4102 4104 4106 4111 4121 4125 4129 4130 4143 4152 4156 4181 3005 3009 3022 3023 3025 3028 3030 3035 3036 3041 3044 3051 3053 3065 3075 3083 3084 3085 3093 3098 3102 3103 3106 3107 3111 3121 3125 3127 3143 3152 3156 3161 3181
2500bc-14/1300bc A composite bowl barrow without a ditch, capped with stones. There was a primary barrow of earth of the Middle Bronze Age, covered by a secondary barrow capping of stones and sandy earth of the Late Bronze Age or Hallstatt. The barrow covered 3 cists dug into a limestone base.

Cist A predated the barrow, was nearly central and had no capstone. Its walls were part natural limestone and it was filled with dark grey soil, burnt and blackened limestone, soft carbonaceous matter, unburnt flakes and animal bone, and fossil crinoid segments. The pit above the cist contained soil, charcoal and calcined human skeletal material and unburnt bone (bovine femur and red deer antler).

Cist B was 2.4m from the south west edge of the barrow. Its pit contained similar filling to that of A. The cist was cut into the rock, and had a roof of overlapping horizontal slabs packed with red clay, resting on the filling of the cist. The whole was concealed by stones laid to resemble bedrock. The red loam floor was trodden down. Over this in an ovoid part of the cist was a charcoal layer (brought from the funeral pyre?) containing scraps of calcined human skeletal material and fragments of pygmy cup No 3. Three pygmy cups and the cremated remains of a female c25-30 stood on top. In the bone pile was much flint, a hook and three pins in calcined bone, a spherical black pottery bead, a small roll of red paste, many crinoid segments, some calcined animal bones of mole, rabbit and shrew, and a fragment of burnt haematite. There was scarcely any charcoal. The flint had been intensely heated. There were also 6 tiny potsherds. The cist post dated A, but was earlier than the secondary barrow, aligned on the radius of the barrow and cut out against the natural faulting of the rock.

Cist C was west north west of the barrow centre, near the edge and had no capstone, using natural limestone for one wall. The floor was levelled but uncovered. The pit of the cist and the cist itself was filled with clean local loam. The pit held nothing but the cist contained 20-30 charcoal scraps, flint chips, some snail shells, limestone fragments, and unburnt crinoid segments.

The primary barrow mound contained a notable collection of flints with all the scattered calcined human skeletal material, pottery and charcoal in an inverted saucer shaped zone focused on the centre a few centimetres above the surface. It was a deliberate scattering of an even mixture. The pits contained a similar mix.
14/1300bc-8/700bc Pit P to the north of the centre was 2.1m x 0.9m and varied in depth from 0.14m to 0.35m. It contained laminated soil of various kinds in patches, possibly organic, containing flints, sherds, crinoid segments, and charcoal. The pottery was possibly of the Late Bronze Age. The pit was dug before the stone cap of the barrow was put on.

There were secondary interments. No 1 was set in the primary barrow surface, and comprised a vestigial cist containing an upright urn. There was loam at the pit bottom, then a carbonaceous layer with yellow ochre, then a fibrous layer covering the urn top, then a slab top. The urn had been broken at the mouth before it was sealed, and contained calcined human skeletal material, unburnt animal bone, charcoal traces, sherds, flint, ochreous matter and 200 crinoid segments. The bones were of a possible male c40-45. They had possibly been broken before cremation, and therefore may have been previously exposed and then cleaned. Strewn at the base of the stone cap were Hallstatt potsherds, flint, calcined human skeletal material, charcoal and a bead.

No 2 was a similar cist south of the centre with a cremation, but set in the centre of a 3.9m x 3m x 0.25-0.55m deep pit excavated nearly to the base of the stone capping. It was covered by 8cm layer of abundant Hallstatt sherds, calcined human skeletal material, and charcoal. The urn was half filled with cremated human skeletal material, probably of a female c20-35.

There was a similar scattering [similar to that of the primary barrow mound] of an even mixture of flint, cremated bone, pottery and charcoal on the barrow top when the stone capping was laid, but it contained more pottery and cremated bone. The pits contained a similar mix.
Remains/Period Y4 Y3
County Somerset
Region SW
National grid square ST
X coordinate 470
Y coordinate 564
Bibliographic source Read 1924, Dobson 1931, Taylor 1933b, 1951b, Grinsell 1971


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Last updated: Tues Aug 10 2004