Background to the Gazetteer | Table of Contents
|Site name||Cheddar 3, Tynings Farm (S), T11|
|Burial codes||4005 4009 4022 4024 4025 4028 4030 4033 4036 4041 4044 4045 4051 4052 4053 4065 4075 4081 4093 4098 4104 4111 4112 4127 4130 4143 4151 4152 4153 4161 4181 3005 3009 3022 3024 3025 3028 3030 3035 3036 3041 3048 3051 3053 3065 3075 3081 3093 3104 3107 3112 3127 3128 3143 3152 3156 3161 3181|
|2500bc-14/1300bc||A ditched earthen bowl barrow with a causeway to the south west, with a later phase 0.6m thick earthen cap added. The core of the mound contained much domestic waste and calcined human bone.
The primary mound covered 4 pits and 3 burnt areas. a further 5 pits were sunk into its top. Pit A at the barrow base contained no human skeletal material and its use is conjectural - it was partly crazy-paved. Pit B was also empty but for a stake hole with charcoal fill. Pits A, B and C had been grass-grown before the mound was raised. Pit C was dug through the floor of a hearth c2.4m in diameter. Both were filled with soil containing charcoal, 30-60 grammes of calcined human bone, burnt sheep bone, burnt flint, clay, unburnt flint implements, sherds of coarse pottery, an igneous pebble and a large rock crystal. A stake hole was visible.
Pit D was 2.4m east of the barrow centre, cylindrical, with clay-lined walls, and contained an inverted collared urn in which were the calcined bones of 2 adults. Surplus bone was piled around the urn. The bones were clean of ash and charcoal. Pale yellow soil filled the pit, which was covered by a layer of clean charcoal brought in from elsewhere. The barrow mound was raised after this deposition. Some of the cremated bones from pit D had been gnawed by rodents, which might imply previous exposure.
At the barrow centre were the remains of at least 10 burnt oak logs, boards or beams, their burning smothered by the mound's erection. They were not a pyre, as no bones were found. The earliest phase was an earthen circle with a ditch and causeway; burial D was the last phase with the mound raised immediately after.
There was some suspicion that the primary mound human skeletal material was of an individual not given normal burial.
The ditches: Ditch 1 enclosed a level space bounded by an internal vallum. It was filled in, and the primary barrow built and Ditch 2 dug in the fill of Ditch 1. In neither case was the function of the ditch to provide barrow material.
Ditch 1 was polygonal in profile with steep sides and an uneven floor. Deposits under the causeway included quick silting with calcined human skeletal material, red loam with remains of fire, broken limestone blocks with remains of a fire and animal bones, red and yellow loams with sandstone and limestone pieces and subsoil, then the old red sandstone blocks of the Late Bronze Age causeway. There were apparent 'squatting sites' on the ditch bottom (animal bones and tools). Bones of ox, pig, sheep, and red deer and flints were found at points. 'Large numbers of implements
Ditch 2 was dug soon after the primary barrow mound had been made. It had a causeway to the east. After primary silting (with some fire evidence), the secondary silting contained little bone, but there were flints and potsherds everywhere as well as several small rubbed pebbles, and at the top saddle querns and mixed Middle and Late Bronze Age pottery, especially in the south east quadrant. The third layer was of red and yellow loams containing some calcined human skeletal material, pottery, flint and animal bone in surface concentrations (an occupation layer?), a spindle whorl, and 2 saddle querns, possibly all part of the secondary barrow construction. The next layer was scattered sandstone boulders; and the final layer the Late Bronze Age barrow fill.
|14/1300bc-8/700bc||The secondary barrow was of loam, a capping of the primary mound with a possible added kerb of red sandstone boulders. The ditch was mostly filled in. Both the primary and secondary mounds contained 'much domestic waste and calcined human bone' (Taylor 1951). The secondary barrow covered 5 pits sunk into the top of the primary mound. Pit 1 contained the cremation of an adult c35-45 in an inverted biconical urn in a rudimentary cist, covered by stone slabs and an ochre studded black paste, and resting on a fantastically perforated natural slab. In the filling of Pit 1 was calcined bone scattered on the floor, of pig and red deer, flint and pottery.
In nearby pits the broken skull of a horse was buried, and a few flint implements, capped with stones.
In the final Late Bronze Age stage Ditch 2 was filled and overlapped by the secondary mound.
|National grid square||ST|
|Bibliographic source||Read 1924, Taylor 1951b, Grinsell 1971|
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Last updated: Tues Aug 10 2004