Table 2 Items of material culture
(for illustrations of all items, see Sillitoe 1988).

* = Made using stone tools
# = made using modern equivalent (razor blade or steel knife)
M = Men; W = Women

Item Item type Raw materials used Made by Used by
Stone axe Axe head Wood, rattan, fig leaves, stone M M
Socket *
Haft *
Binding *
Steel axe haft *# Stone, wood M M
chert knife * Chert M mainly, W sometimes M mainly, W sometimes
meat knife (bamboo) *# Bamboo M M
cassowary bone knife *# Bone M M
Scrapers Sweet potato scraper *# Bamboo M,W M,W
Taro scraper *# M,W M,W
Borer Borer *# Rat's jaw, bamboo, tulip fibre M M
Needles wooden needle *# Tree fern(wood) Men mainly, W sometimes M,W
twine end needle *# Bamboo
Pin Pin *# Bamboo M M
Clubs and wedges cleaver club Wood M M
cleaving wedges M
pig club M
taro club # M,W
Digging sticks woman's digging stick * Wood M W
man's digging stick * M
cane grass digging stick M
Animal tackle pig tethers (2 types) *# Bark, string M M,W
dog's hunting collar *# Pig scapula, rattan M
Fishing net Fishing net Wood, netbag, plant stems W W
Broom Broom # Wood M,W M,W
Walking stick # Walking stick Wood M M
Item Item type Raw materials used Made by Used by
Bow Bow *# Wood, bamboo M M
Bow string *# bark fibre (string)
Arrow (19 types)
Blunt-club arrow *# Wood, sword grass, bamboo, bark fibre (string), rattan, resin, leaves, clay, cassowary claws and leg bone, wax, fig leaves M M
Sharp-club arrow *#
Collared arrow *#
Clay-weighted arrow*#
Pronged arrow *#
Plain-pointed arrow
1) milkwort version *#
Plain-pointed arrow
2) palmwood version *#
Plain-pointed arrow
3) betel palm-wood version *#
Plain-pointed arrow
4) Orania palm-wood version *#
Plain-pointed arrow
5) Black palm-wood version *#
Long-pointed arrow *#
Broad-blade arrow *#
Rounded blade arrow *#
Fine-blade arrow *#
Narrow-blade arrow *#
Claw-tipped arrow *#
Bone tipped arrow (short-pointed version) *#
Bone-tipped arrow (long pointed version) *
Carved arrow *#
Spear haft *# Wood, cassowary bone, wax, fig leaves M M
head *#
Shields 4 types
Bark shoulder shield *# Bark sheet, rattan, screw pine roots, wood M M
Bark hand shield *#
Wooden shoulder shield #
Wooden underarm shield *#
Item Item type Raw materials used Made by Used by
Firelighter Firelighter # Wood, bamboo M M,W
Tongs Tongs # Wood M,W M,W
Oil Scoop Oil scoop # Bark M,W M,W
Cooking tube Cooking tube *# Bamboo M,W M,W
Salt bundle Salt bundle *# Leaves, ash, bark fibre M mainly, W sometimes M mainly, W sometimes
Hunger restrainer Hunger restrainer *# Bamboo, bark fibre (string) moss M M
Gourd water container Gourd water container *# Gourd, bamboo, fern stems, wood, sword grass, ash M mainly, W sometimes M,W
Internode flask Internode flask # Bamboo M mainly, W sometimes M,W
Water tube vessel Water tube vessel # Bamboo, sword grass M,W M,W
Tobacco pipes (4 types)
Bamboo pipe *# Bamboo, rat's mandible, wood, sword grass stem M M
Cane pipe *#
Fig-wood pipe *#
Sword grass pipe *#
Item Item type Raw materials used Made by Used by
Skirt (3 types)
Everyday skirt # String, sedge stems, screw pine leaves, job's tears, pig grease W W
Mourning skirt #
Fancy skirt #
Rain-cape Rain cape Screw pine leaves, string W mainly, M occasionally W mainly, M occasionally
Girdles and straps (5 types)
Bark girdle *# Bark, rattan, string, wood, bamboo M M
Rattan girdle strap *#
Bast girdle strap *#
String girdle strap *
Braided girdle strap *#
Buttock covering Buttock covering Palm lily leaves M M
Apron Apron Wood, bark, string, cuscus fur, dye plants, screw plant leaves W M
Bags (5 types) woman's bag Fig bark and saplings, String, dye plants, screw pine leaves, bamboo W W
man's knotted-strap bag W M
man's narrow-strap bag W M
man's wide-strap bag W M
woven cane bag *# M M
Head wear (7 types) woman's hat-bag String, dye plants, screw pine leaves, job's tears, bamboo, bark W W
woman's hood W
in-law avoidance hood W
woman's net-cap W
man's net-cap M
fancy net-cap M
bark-cloth hat *# M
Item Item type Raw materials used Made by Used by
Wigs (5 types) Burr wig # Burrs, human hair, string, rattan, fig bark, pig grease, sword grass leaves, tree fern, bamboo M M
Trapezoid wig
Oval wig
Crescent wig #
Foliage wig
Wig prodder (Plate 72) Wig prodder * Tree fern M M
Feather adornments (14 types) Single feathers Birds (feathers), bamboo, wax, bark fibre, palm lily leaves, fern stems, string, rattan, possum tails M M all
W occasionally in marriage ceremony
Feather pins *#
Split feathers #
Bird's wings *#
Bird's skin *#
Cassowary pompom #
Feather circlet *#
Sprung feathers *#
Sprung feather pompom *
Kumul bird of paradise headdress *#
Enamelled bird of paradise headdress *#
Plumed pins *#
Possum tail pins *#
Feather fringe *
Feather forehead plaque *#
Miscellaneous head adornments (7 types)
Shell forehead plaque Shells, possum fur, string, bamboo, cuscus tail, cowrie shells, cassowary wing quills M M
Leaves in hair M
Nassa shell forehead band # M
Bead forehead band # M
Cane headband *# M
Fur headband * M, W occasionally
Comb # M,W
Ear decorations (4 types) Knitted ear-ring Rattan, cassowary wing quills, bamboo, string, shell M,W M,W
Braided ear-ring *# M M
Shell ear-ring M M
Ear hair-pin *# M,W occasionally M,W
Beard pin Beard pin *# Possum teeth M M
Pierced ear and nose decoration Pierced ear and nose decoration Cassowary wing quill, sword grass stem M,W M,W
Necklaces and pendants (22 types) Job's tears necklace Job's tears, nettle vines, tree and fig saplings, cowrie shells, nassa shells, shell discs, arc shells, string, rattan, cassowary quills, tulip bark fibre, bamboo, leaves, screw pine, feathers, bark, resin, hornbill beak, pig's tusk, wax, pig grease W W
Cowrie shell necklace front mounted # M,W M,W
Cowrie shell necklace side mounted * M,W M
Nassa shell necklace front mounted Mainly M, W sometimes Mainly M, W sometimes
Nassa shell necklace side mounted # M,W M,W
Shell disc necklace # M,W M,W, children
Ark shell necklace M,W,C Children,M,W occasionally
Cassowary quill necklace *# M M
Bead necklace W M,W, children
Pearl shell fragment necklace *# M,W M,W
Pearl shell pendant *# M M,W
Pearl shell fillet M M
Pearl shell wrapper M M
Bark pearl shell wrapper *# M M
Pearl shell replica * M M
Pearl shell mount *# M M
Pearl shell hoop *# M M
Cowrie shell pendant * M M,W
Bailer shell pendant *# M M
Hornbill pendant *# M M
Cylindrical pendant *# M M
Slat pendant # M M
Limb decoration (12 types) Twisted armband # Rattan, vine tendrils, fig saplings, cowrie shells, nettle vines, bamboo, tigaso oil, string, screw pine leaves M M
Entwined armband *# M M
Woman's armband *# M W mainly, men sometimes
Vine tendril armband M M
Huli style armband *# M M mainly W sometimes
Woven armband *# M M,W
Woven wristband *# M M
Knitted wristband # W M,W
Elbow bangle # M M
Miniature bag bangle M M
Woven leg band # M M
Knitted legband # M M
Cosmetics (10 types plus a range of face and body painting decoration designs) # Cosmetics Tigaso oil, pig grease, mineral oil, red ochre, screw pine oil, rust stains, arnatto shrub seed cases M mainly, W occasionally M mainly, W occasionally
Cicatrices and tattoos (14 types) Cicatrices Charcoal, ear wax, nettles, sap, string, pith W W
Tattoos M,W M,W
Ornamental chain Ornamental chain *# Rattan M,W M,W
Baldric Baldric # String, cane sliver M M
Apron adorner Apron adorner *# String, pig's tails, ochre, tigaso oil, pig grease M M
Ornamental stone axe haft *# Wood, rattan, fig bast fibre cuscus fur, hoop pine resin M M
socket *#
strands *#
Item Item type Raw materials used Made by Used by
Drum (Plate 73) Drum # Wood, rattan, possum skin, string, clay, hoop pine resin, wax M M
Rattle Rattle *# Rattan, seed cases M M
Jew's harp Jew's harp *# Bamboo, string, fig bast fibre, wax M M
Mouth bow Mouth bow *# Tree saplings, vine tendrils M M
Pan pipe Pan pipe *# Bamboo, rattan or string M M
Whistle Whistle *# Bamboo M M


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Last updated: Mon Sep 15 2003