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Figure 7: Cycles and changes: different reasons for mobility among Waihou Māori (Phillips 2000a, fig 7.4)

LONG 50-100 movement into new lands, new types of sites population increases, economic development, environmental changes
MID 10-30 grouping around the pā of a chief mana of chief, new conquests
SHORT 2-3 establishment of gardens and kāinga garden rotations, economic and environmental variables, keeping land for political purposes (ahi kā)
ANNUAL movement to gardens, fishing, birding and gathering of plants seasonality of resources
OTHER temporary trips away trading, war parties, social visits