List of Figures

Figure 1: Location of the El Jadramil-El Palmar (Arcos de la Frontera, Cádiz) site.

Figure 2: a) Aerial view of El Jadramil-El Palmar site, and the present quarry activity (2003); b) Aerial view of the modern quarry (in 2003) and the remaining area of prehistoric mining with the presence of shafts (Zone 2); an excavated area of shafts (square), partially excavated in the 1992-93 rescue survey and a non-affected area of the site, positioned to the south of the quarry and the Haza del Palmar farmhouse.

Figure 3: Different archaeological survey areas in El Jadramil (1992-2001) (modified from Lazarich et al. 2003)

Figure 4: Many prehistoric shafts have been 'discovered' by the present quarrying, clearly showing the internal structure of these subterranean galleries (February 2003).

Figure 5: a) Diagram of a shaft with horizontal galleries that follow the raw material nodules in order to exploit them; b) Mouth of one of the vertical shafts, emptied by the present quarrying activity; c) Sub-quadrangular shaft excavated in the 1992-93 rescue survey, showing the original different levels of the horizontal work, made by picking during their construction and d) The modern quarry in 2003 that cut two levels of galleries and many vertical shafts in Zone 2 of the Jadramil site, viewed from the front.

Figure 6: Grooved mining hammers made of dolerite were recovered in the rescue survey of El Jadramil (Zones 1 and 2).

Figure 7: Marks in walls and roofs of a gallery (Zone 2) probably produced by sharper tools, such as chisels made of stone, bone or antler (marks A) and by grooved hammers (mark B). The circle shows an elliptical nodule of a more cemented stone rounded by hammer impacts during the extraction process.

Figure 8: a) Fragment of a cereal mill, made of cemented biocalcarenite, found on the surface of the well site (scale = 6cm); b) binocular microscope view of the cereal mill (scale bar = 1mm) c) binocular microscope view of the raw material produced by this mining activity, a cemented biocalcarenite (scale bar = 2mm) d) Microscopic view of a thin-section, doubly polarized light, of the same rock (scale bar = 1mm)


© Internet Archaeology/Author(s) URL:
Last updated: Wed Jun 10 2009