List of Figures

Figure 1: Location map

Figure 2: Figure 2: a. Topography b. Soils c. Watercourses and drainage

Figure 3: The quantity of axes per parish – each dot is centred within the parish. Number at Holme-on-Spalding Moor = 22

Figure 4: Axeheads and watercourses

Figure 5: Flint adze blade from Hasholme Carr Farm, Holme-on-Spalding Moor. L. 182mm, 40mm across the cutting edge. The quality of workmanship relates this adze to the exotic, specialised, broad-butted 'Duggleby' adzes and 'Seamer' axes (Manby 1974, 98-100). However, its squarish cutting edge contrasts with the semi-circular cutting edges of the Duggleby and Seamer types. The delicate nature of the Hasholme example and its fine polished finish place it within the prestigious class of Later Neolithic flint working (Manby forthcoming).

Figure 6: Group XVIII (Dolerite) axehead from Hasholme Carr Farm, Holme-on-Spalding Moor. Heavy Axe Blade Class C5. L. 172mm, 81mm across cutting edge. The fresh condition of the axe is unusual. Note the dark central vertical band of organic origin left by a haft (Manby forthcoming).

Figure 7: Heavy Axe Blade Class B2 from Leylandii, Holme-on-Spalding Moor, L. 171mm, 70mm across the cutting edge. Asymmetric pointed oval section with rounded butt. Flint, very dense, creamy with white and fawn mottling and deep pockets of chalk skin in the surface. Probably of Wold flint, the cutting edge shows no damage by use. This flint axe class is scarce across Yorkshire, where it reaches the northern extent of its distribution. It is more numerous in Lincolnshire and the Trent Basin (Manby forthcoming).

Figure 8: Group VI: Lake District axehead from Rose Villa, Holme-on-Spalding Moor. Class B2a. L. 102mm, 59mm across the cutting edge. A reworked butt of a large 'Cumbrian' type; the widest part was turned into a new cutting edge ground at acute angles. Subsequently a large flake was taken off one face and small flakes and chipping off the other (Manby forthcoming).

Figure 9: Axeheads and terrain

Figure 10: Axeheads and soils (after King and Bradley 1987).

Figure 11: Saddle quern from South Cliffe Common (top stone diameter: 240 x 200mm, height: 60mm). Made of sandstone from the Lias bench close by, the two stones had weathered together in situ. The arrow indicates a groove, almost certainly created by polishing stone axes.

List of Tables

Table 1: Foulness Valley axes and adzes according to petrological group

Table 2: The stone axes and adzes and soils of the Foulness Valley


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Last updated: Wed Jul 1 2009