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Table 31: Burning properties of the wood species represented in the charcoal assemblage (based on Scout Association 1999).

species common name comments
Alnus glutinosa alder poor in heat and does not last, good as a charcoal
Malus sylvestris apple splendid, burns slowly and steadily with little flame but good heat, pleasant scent
Fraxinus excelsior ash the best burning wood providing both flame and heat, and will burn when green
Fagus sylvatica beech not as good as ash, only fair when green
Betula sp. birch good heat, burns quickly, pleasant smell
Prunus spinosa blackthorn one of the best, burns slowly, good heat and little smoke
Prunus sp. cherry burns slowly with good heat, pleasant scent
Sambucus nigra elder mediocre, very smoky and a quick burner producing little heat, superstition says that burning this tree invites death
Ulmus sp. elm needs to be seasoned due to high water content, can smoke violently
Crataegus sp. hawthorn similar to blackthorn
Corylus avellana hazel good as firewood
Ilex aquifolium holly good only when seasoned, but can be burnt green
Acer campestre field maple good as firewood
Quercus sp. oak sparse in flame, acrid smoke, old seasoned oak excellent for heat, slow and steady burning, little ash
Pyrus pyraster pear good heat, and scent
Prunus domestica plum good heat and scent
Salix sp. willow poor, burns slowly with little flame even when seasoned and is apt to spit
Taxus baccata yew one of the best, burns slowly with fierce heat and pleasant scent
Fabaceae gorse, broom most likely used as kindling