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List of Figures

Figure 1: Chart illustrating process of lidar data capture and processing (after Devereux and Amable 2009: 60; Renslow, Greenfield and Guay 2000: 4).

Figure 2: 'Hillshade' (angle: 45° azimuth: 315°) of Eddisbury hillfort, Cheshire (data courtesy of Cheshire West and Chester Council).

Figure 3: Map illustrating the extent of the project study area.

Figure 4: HER data entries for study area (data courtesy of GCC).

Figure 5: Chart illustrating the proposed flow of knowledge exchange and production.

Figure 6: Greyscale raster image of Digital Terrain Model [DTM] lidar data.

Figure 7: Hillshaded Digital Terrain Model [DTM]. Hillshading can be used to highlight earthworks through the application of shadow from a single azimuth.

Figure 8: Principal Component Analysis [PCA] of Digital Terrain Model [DTM]. PCA is typically used in lidar data visualisation to combine hillshaded raster images from different azimuths into a single composite image to improve feature detection.

Figure 9: Slope analysis, which calculates steepness or the degree of incline of a surface, of Digital Terrain Model [DTM]. This can be useful visualisation, providing complimentary information regarding a features characteristics, when used in conjuncture with multiple visualisation methods.

Figure 10: Sky View Factor [SVF] of Digital Terrain Model [DTM]. SVF is a lidar visualisation technique based on diffuse illumination designed to overcome problems affecting feature detection associated with direct illumination, shaded relief methods.

Figure 11: Open source 'Geostack' used by project (after OpenGeo 2012. Image: © Boundless 2013).

Figure 12: Screenshot illustrating spatial database structure.

Figure 13:Example of GeoServer administration interface.

Figure 14: Screenshot of WebGIS application user interface.

Figure 15: Illustrates the use of application on the Apple iPad and the export of kmz file.

Figure 16: Illustrating the Google Earth kmz overlay used during fieldwork.

Figure 17: Overview of features identified during WebGIS transcription.

Figure 18: Area of previously unrecorded ridge and furrow.

Figure 19: Graph illustrating visibility of features by source layer.

Figure 20: Example of linear earthwork features, possibly forming an enclosure, shown as HER points and visible in lidar visualisations but not transcribed by users of WebGIS.

Figure 21: Map depicting area selected for ground truthing.

Figure 22: Utilising the WebGIS application on an Apple iPad in the field.

Figure 23: Lidar visualisations of features depicted in Figures 24-26.

Figure 24: North-facing photograph of two possible relict field boundaries (Line Feature ID: 58).

Figure 25: North-West facing photograph, Line Feature ID: 60 & 57, depicting two possible relict field boundaries.

Figure 26: West-facing photograph of Line Feature ID: 1 & 55, depicting two possible relict field boundaries.

Figure 27: South-facing photograph of Line Feature ID: 60 & 59 possible part of a relic field system.

Figure 28: Lidar Visualisations of Polygon Feature ID: 135.

Figure 29: Photograph of slight ridge and furrow earthworks taken facing west. (Polygon Feature ID: 135).

Figure 30: Lidar Visualisations of features illustrated by Figures 31 & 32.

Figure 31: Photograph of a 'possible old-field boundary', taken facing northeast (Line Feature ID: 7).

Figure 32: Photograph of a 'Pair of Ditches', taken facing northwest (Polygon Feature ID: 6).

Figure 33: Lidar Visualisations of Line Feature ID 100 & 101, shown below in Figure 34.

Figure 34: Two slight banks of earth may be part of relict field system or ridge and furrow (Line Feature ID 100 & 101).

Figure 35: Example of relative transcription detail of WebGIS and HER, centred upon Brimpsfield Castle.


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