List of Figures

Figure 1: Chart illustrating process of lidar data capture and processing (after Devereux and Amable 2009: 60; Renslow, Greenfield and Guay 2000: 4).

Figure 2: 'Hillshade' (angle: 45° azimuth: 315°) of Eddisbury hillfort, Cheshire (data courtesy of Cheshire West and Chester Council).

Figure 3: Map illustrating the extent of the project study area.

Figure 4: HER data entries for study area (data courtesy of GCC).

Figure 5: Chart illustrating the proposed flow of knowledge exchange and production.

Figure 6: Greyscale raster image of Digital Terrain Model [DTM] lidar data.

Figure 7: Hillshaded Digital Terrain Model [DTM]. Hillshading can be used to highlight earthworks through the application of shadow from a single azimuth.

Figure 8: Principal Component Analysis [PCA] of Digital Terrain Model [DTM]. PCA is typically used in lidar data visualisation to combine hillshaded raster images from different azimuths into a single composite image to improve feature detection.

Figure 9: Slope analysis, which calculates steepness or the degree of incline of a surface, of Digital Terrain Model [DTM]. This can be useful visualisation, providing complimentary information regarding a features characteristics, when used in conjuncture with multiple visualisation methods.

Figure 10: Sky View Factor [SVF] of Digital Terrain Model [DTM]. SVF is a lidar visualisation technique based on diffuse illumination designed to overcome problems affecting feature detection associated with direct illumination, shaded relief methods.

Figure 11: Open source 'Geostack' used by project (after OpenGeo 2012. Image: © Boundless 2013).

Figure 12: Screenshot illustrating spatial database structure.

Figure 13:Example of GeoServer administration interface.

Figure 14: Screenshot of WebGIS application user interface.

Figure 15: Illustrates the use of application on the Apple iPad and the export of kmz file.

Figure 16: Illustrating the Google Earth kmz overlay used during fieldwork.

Figure 17: Overview of features identified during WebGIS transcription.

Figure 18: Area of previously unrecorded ridge and furrow.

Figure 19: Graph illustrating visibility of features by source layer.

Figure 20: Example of linear earthwork features, possibly forming an enclosure, shown as HER points and visible in lidar visualisations but not transcribed by users of WebGIS.

Figure 21: Map depicting area selected for ground truthing.

Figure 22: Utilising the WebGIS application on an Apple iPad in the field.

Figure 23: Lidar visualisations of features depicted in Figures 24-26.

Figure 24: North-facing photograph of two possible relict field boundaries (Line Feature ID: 58).

Figure 25: North-West facing photograph, Line Feature ID: 60 & 57, depicting two possible relict field boundaries.

Figure 26: West-facing photograph of Line Feature ID: 1 & 55, depicting two possible relict field boundaries.

Figure 27: South-facing photograph of Line Feature ID: 60 & 59 possible part of a relic field system.

Figure 28: Lidar Visualisations of Polygon Feature ID: 135.

Figure 29: Photograph of slight ridge and furrow earthworks taken facing west. (Polygon Feature ID: 135).

Figure 30: Lidar Visualisations of features illustrated by Figures 31 & 32.

Figure 31: Photograph of a 'possible old-field boundary', taken facing northeast (Line Feature ID: 7).

Figure 32: Photograph of a 'Pair of Ditches', taken facing northwest (Polygon Feature ID: 6).

Figure 33: Lidar Visualisations of Line Feature ID 100 & 101, shown below in Figure 34.

Figure 34: Two slight banks of earth may be part of relict field system or ridge and furrow (Line Feature ID 100 & 101).

Figure 35: Example of relative transcription detail of WebGIS and HER, centred upon Brimpsfield Castle.


Internet Archaeology is an open access journal. Except where otherwise noted, content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY) Unported licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that attribution to the author(s), the title of the work, the Internet Archaeology journal and the relevant URL/DOI are given.

University of York legal statements

File last updated: Wed Oct 23 2013