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5. Bryozoa, Ships and Structures

The encrustations may also have considerable economic impact as a fouling organism on the hulls of ships and within sewage outlets and seawater intake pipes. Ryland (1970, 12) reports that at the start of the 20th century some 700 tons of bryozoa were removed from the sewers in Manchester. Wood-boring bryozoans are also known, such as Bulbella abscondita Braem 1951, whose borings may be preserved in ship timber or submerged wooden structures (Boekschoten 1966, 359).


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