Friable, with laminar fracture, but smooth surfaces, sometimes almost
soapy to the touch; red-brown
(Munsell 2.5YR 5/4 to 5YR 5/4)
with golden-brown surfaces; abundantly micaceous fabric, with some
quartz and other fine inclusions. Patchy creamy-yellow slip on
external surface of some examples.
Augst TG 71
A long slender amphora with high rounded shoulder, tapering foot and
narrow neck; one or two tight strap handles
below small beaded rim;
broad horizontal ribbing often visible over the lower body. Some of
the earlier examples have two- or three-character graffiti in Greek
characters on the shoulder below the lower handle attachment which can
be interpreted as dates based on the Actian calendar, commencing in
31 BC (Lang 1955).
c. 6.5l in 2nd century AD. Later examples can be larger.
A very long-lived type, appearing in later 1st century (one-handled)
- dated graffiti range from AD 74 to 158. Two-handled from
later 4th century, and continuing to end of 6th. Distribution covers
Italy (Ostia) and Provence by mid-2nd century. Many British examples
are from 3rd/4th century, but a few earlier; also c. AD 475-550 in
western Britain. Featureless sherds only datable by context.
Petrology and distribution suggests western Asia Minor, perhaps the
region of Sardis.
Not certain. They are often described as `water jars', and some
analyses have identified oil residues (Rothschild-Boros 1981)
but Martin-Kilcher suggests that wine was the most likely contents (Martin-Kilcher 1994, 440-1).
Extensive around eastern and western Mediterranean, but never
abundant and not common on
wreck sites (Parker 1992, no. 499)
perhaps suggesting that they were not transported in large numbers as
were other amphoras.
class LIV BIS.
Peacock and Williams
class 45 (Ballana 13a,
Fulford, M. G., Byzantium and Britain: a Mediterranean perspective on Post-Roman Mediterranean imports in western Britain and Ireland, MedArch, 33, 1-6, 1989.
Lang, M., Dated jars from early Imperial times, Hesperia, 24, 277-85, 1955.
Martin-Kilcher, S., Die römischen Amphoren aus Augst und Kaiseraugst. Ein Beitrag zur römischen Handels- und Kulturgeschichte. 2, Die Amphoren für Wein, Fischsauce, Südfrüchte (Gruppen 2-24) und Gesamtauswertung, Forschungen in Augst, 7, Römermuseum, Augst, 1994.
Parker, A. J., Ancient shipwrecks of the Mediterranean and the Roman Provinces, British archaeological reports. International series, 580, Tempus Reparatum, Oxford, 1992.
Riley, J. A., The coarse pottery from Benghazi, in Excavations at Sidi Khrebish, Benghazi (Berenice). II, J. A. Lloyd ed., Supplements to Libya Antiqua, 5, 91-497, Department of Antiquities, Tripoli, 1979.
Rothschild-Boros, M. C., The determination of amphora contents, in Archaeology and Italian society: Prehistoric, Roman and Medieval studies, G. Barker and R. Hodges ed., British archaeological reports. International series, 102, 79-89, 1981.
Thomas, C., A provisional list of imported pottery in Post-Roman Britain and Ireland, Special report, 7, Institute of Cornish Studies, Redruth, 1981.