List of Figures

Figure 1. Reported sites with palynological sterility in the Iberian Peninsula. Numbers refer to sites detailed in Tables 3-7.

Figure 2. Percentages of reported cases of palynological sterility in the Iberian Peninsula, arranged by depositional type (left) and chronology (right).

Figure 3. Scheme of the main causes of sterility in the Iberian Peninsula as applied to peat bogs, lakes and cave systems.

Figure 4. Altamira. Palaeolithic wall paintings of Altamira, Cantabria, northern Spain. Photographs: J.S. Carrión.

Figure 5. Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos. Exterior view of excavation in Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos. Photograph: M. García-Antón.

Figure 6. Atapuerca Galería. Excavation in Atapuerca Galería. Photograph: M. García-Antón.

Figure 7. Atapuerca Gran Dolina. General view of Sections TD-1, TD-2, TD-3 in Atapuerca Gran Dolina. Photograph: M. García-Antón.

Figure 8. Barranco Hondo. A slope deposit palynologically unproductive in Barranco Hondo, Teruel. Photograph: P. González-Sampériz.

Figure 9. Bòbila Ordis. a) Coring in the brickyard of Bòbila Ordis (core II) in 1983. b-c) Coring of Bóbila Ordis (core IV) in 1988. d) Sediment in outcrop of Bòbila Ordis (Lake 2) showing the injection of older sediment along the fault plane. Photographs: S. Leroy.

Figure 10. Bolomor. Main stratigraphical section of Cova Bolomor, a renowned Pleistocene cave site of eastern Spain. Photograph: M. Dupré.

Figure 11. Carihuela. Carihuela Cave Chamber III Section 2 (Corte de Ico) showing the location of pollen samples in 1988. Most dark layers, despite their high organic content, were sterile. Photograph: J.S. Carrión.

Figure 12. Cendres. Panoramic view and sections studied for pollen in Les Cendres cave (Alicante, Mediterranean littoral). Photographs: M. Dupré.

Figure 13. Conejos. The Barranco de los Conejos gully in the Orce region, Granada. Scale given by person in the lower left. Photograph: S. Leroy.

Figure 14. Cova Beneito. Entrance area and upper Palaeolithic section of Beneito cave, Alicante. Photographs: J.S. Carrión.

Figure 15. Cova Negra. The Mousterian cave of Cova Negra, Játiva. Photograph: M. Dupré.

Figure 16. Chaves. General view and stratigraphical section from Chaves cave, Huesca. Photographs: P. González-Sampériz.

Figure 17. El Acequión. Drilling with hydraulic piston corer the Holocene sediments of Laguna del Acequión salt lake in Albacete. All the pollen samples were sterile. Photographs: M. Dupré.

Figure 18. El Cañizar, Villarquemado. Deep coring in the Laguna del Cañizar, Villarquemado, Teruel. Photograph: P. González-Sampériz.

Figure 19. El Salt. Stratigraphical section of the Mousterian cave site of El Salt, Alicante. Both the stalagmitic crusts (below) and the darker, more organic levels were palynologically sterile. Photograph: M. Dupré.

Figure 20. Fonelas. The Upper Pliocene palaeontological site of Fonelas, Guadix Basin, very rich in mammal bones (d-e). Sediment samples (a-c), mostly of coarse fraction, and coprolites of the hyaenid Chasmaporthetes were palynologically sterile. Photographs: J. S. Carrión & S. Fernández.

Figure 21. Forcas. Stratigraphical section considered for pollen in the Forcas rockshelter, Huesca. Photographs: P. González-Sampériz.

Figure 22. Gorham's Cave. The Palaeolithic levels of Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar Peninsula, have provided a number of coprolites (below right), presumably from hyaenids and canids. Some of these have been polliniferous while, inexplicably, others were totally barren of pollen. Photographs: C. Finlayson & J.S. Carrión.

Figure 23. Grajo. Crocuta coprolite from Cueva del Grajo, Córdoba. Photograph: S. Fernández.

Figure 24. La Blanca. Longitudinal section of one of the several palynologically sterile calcium carbonate cave speleothems from La Blanca. Photograph: J. Carrión.

Figure 25. La Playa. Playa lake of La Playa, north-eastern Spain. Photograph: P. González-Sampériz.

Figure 26. Laguna de Orcera, Segura Mountains of southern Spain. A sediment core from this lake was palynologically sterile. Photograph: J. Carrión.

Figure 27. Legunova. The partially sterile Legunova rockshelter, an Azilian to Neolithic site of northern Spain. Photograph: P. González-Sampériz.

Figure 28. Mencal. The recently discovered large mammal fossil site of Mencal, Guadix Basin, semi-arid south-eastern Spain. Fossiliferous micrites and lutites (below) originated in Upper Pliocene lacustrine environments and were palynologically sterile. Photographs: S. Fernández and A. Arribas.

Figure 29. Molino del Vadico. The Neolithic rockshelter of Molino del Vadico, Albacete. Pollen grains were absent from all deposits. The section studied (below) showed abundant insect and root bioturbations. Photographs: J.S. Carrión.

Figure 30. Navarrés. The Navarrés peatbog produced a long pollen sequence from OIS3 to late Holocene. However, the OIS2, pleniglacial levels, dominated by aeolian sands (red lines), were palynologically sterile. Photographs: J.S. Carrión.

Figure 31. Ontalafia. Inundated and dry Ontalafia salt-lake in La Mancha Plain, central Spain. All sediment cores were palynologically sterile. Photographs: M. Dupré.

Figure 32. Pego. Pollen analyses of two coreholes in the Pego-Oliva littoral marsh were scarcely rewarding. Pollen was poorly preserved, and episodically absent from quite an organic-rich, yet salty, sediment. Photograph: M. Dupré.

Figure 33. Peña del Diablo rockshelter in Zaragoza province. Photographs: P. González-Sampériz.

Figure 34. Pétrola. The sediments from the saline lake Pétrola were rich in carbonates and, especially, signs of oxidation were observed throughout the core, and chlorides and sulfates (anhydrite and gypsum) very common. All samples for pollen were sterile. Photographs: M. Dupré.

Figure 35. Ratlla del Bubo. The Upper Palaeolithic rockshelter Ratlla del Bubo, Alicante, fully sterile. Photographs: M. Dupré.

Figure 36. San Benito. San Benito seasonal lake. A sediment core gave palynologically rich levels alternating with sterile ones. Photograph: M. Dupré.

Figure 37. Torreblanca. A littoral peat bog, Torreblanca. Palynologically sterile levels occur under the influence of fluvial and marine depositional environments. Strictly paludal levels are polliniferous. Photograph: M. Dupré.

Figure 38. Torrejones. The Pleistocene infill of the Torrejones Cave (above), Central System, provided a number of hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) coprolites (below), with strong differences in their potential for palynology. Photographs: J.S. Carrión.

Figure 39. Tramacastilla. The moraine deposit of Tramacastilla, Huescan Pyrenees, completely sterile. Photograph: P. González-Sampériz.

Figure 40. Tres Pins. Coring of TPI core at Tres Pins, a Upper Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene site near Banyoles, in 1983. Photograph: S. Leroy.

Figure 41. Villacastín. Coprolites of Crocuta crocuta subsp, intermedia from the karstic site of Villacastín, Central System. Photograph: J.S. Carrión.

Figure 42. Yeseras. Yeseras, a Lower Pleistocene palaeontological site at the Guadix Basin, Granada. All samples for pollen were sterile. Photograph: S. Leroy.


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Last updated: Mon Feb 23 2009