A Bibliography of Erratics

The bibliography comes in three sections: the first is geological and concerns glacial and other re-cycling. The second mainly concerns petrography and implements while the third lists websites, some of which are referred to in the text. Not all entries are mentioned in the text, but are included because it is felt readers may find them useful for an understanding of local superficial deposits and the archaeology of the implements.

Glacial Geology and Natural Re-cycling

Agassiz, L. 1842 'On glaciers, and the evidence of their having once existed in Scotland, Ireland, and England', Proc. Geol. Soc. Lond. 3 (1840-41), 327-32.

Anon. 1868 'Scientific notes of the month: Geology', Gentleman's Magazine, 667.

Anon. 1893-4 'Report of the Boulder Committee', Trans Hull Geol. Soc. 1, 6-8.

Antrobus, J.C. and Hatch, F.H. 1890 'Preliminary note on the composition and origin of Cheshire boulders', Rep. Brit. Assoc. Advmnt Sci. Trans. Sect. C, 813.

Auden, G.A. 1906 A Scientific Survey of the Area around York. British Assoc. Admnt Sci. London.

Binsteiner, A. and Ruprechtsberger, E.M. 2006 Mondsee-Kultur und Analyse der Silexartefakte von See am Mondsee, Linzer Archäologische Forschungen, Sonderheft XXXV.

Boardman, J. 1980 'Evidence for pre-Devensian glaciation in the northeastern Lake District, Nature 286, 599-600.

Carr, A.P. and Blackley, M.W.L. 1968 'Geological composition of the pebbles of Chesil Beach, Dorset', Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist. and Archaeol. Soc. 90, 133-40.

Charlesworth, J.K., 1957 The Quaternary Era. London, Melbourne and New York: Arnold,.

Charpentier, J. de 1835 'Sur la cause probable du transport des blocs erratiques de la Suisse', Annales des Mines 3, vol. 8, 219-36.

Daubrée, A. 1878 'Rapport sur l'interêt que presente la conservation de certains blocs erratiques, situé sur le territoire français, et sur l'ouvrage de Mm Falson et Chantre, relatifs aux anciens glaciers et au terrain erratique de la partie moyenne du bassin du Rhône', Comp. Rend. 1: 86, 568-9; Ann. Club Alp Franc. Ann 4, 343; Mat. Nat. Hist. Homme ser. 2 t.ix, 97 [A report of a committee appointed by the Mineralogical Section of the French Academy of Sciences in favour of the preservation of erratic blocks of special scientific interest.]

de Rance, C.E. 1871a 'On the two glaciations of the Lake District', Geol.Mag. 8, 107 and 'On the glaciation of the North-West of England', Geol.Mag. 8, 412.

Ehlers, J. 1983 Glacial Deposits in North-west Europe. Rotterdam: Balkema.

Ehlers, J. and Gibbard, P.L. 2004 Quaternary Glaciations – Extent and Chronology, Part I Europe. Elsevier.

Foster-Barham, H.G. 1897 Field Geology in South Westmoreland: a paper read before the Burneside Mutual Improvement Society, February 11th 1897, Kendal.

Gaigalas, A. 2008 'Quaternary research in the Baltic countries' in R.H. Grapes et al. (eds) History of Geomorphology and Quaternary Geology. Geological Soc. London. 129-40.

Goodchild, J.G. 1874 'On Drift', Geol. Mag., New Ser. Dec. 11, vol. 1, 496-510.

Grapes, R.H., Oldroyd, D.R. and Grigelis, A. 2008 History of Geomorphology and Quaternary Geology. Geological Soc. London.

Grieve, W. and Hammersley, A.D. 1971 'A re-examination of the Quaternary deposits of the Barrow area', Proc. Barrow Nat. Field Club (N.S.) 10, 5-25.

Griffiths, J.C. 1940 The Glacial Deposits west of the Taff. unpubl. PhD thesis presented to Imperial College, University of London.

Grip, E. 1953 'Tracing of glacial boulders as an aid to ore prospecting in Sweden', Econ. Geol. 48, 715-25.

Harmer, F.W. 1928 'The distribution of erratics and drift', Proc. Yorks Geol. Soc. 21, 79-150.

Hodgson, E. 1870 'The Granite-Drift of Furness', Geol. Mag. 7, 328-39.

Hudson, J. 1843 A Complete Guide to the Lakes: Wordsworth's 'Scenery of the Lakes' and letters on the Geology of the Lake District by the Rev. Prof. Sedgewick, Kendal.

Jehn, T.J. 1909 'The glacial deposits of Western Caernarvonshire', Trans Roy. Soc. Edin. 47, 17-58.

Jones, T.A. 1912 'Petrographical studies of local erratics', Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc. 11 (1910-13), 183-200.

Jones, T.A. 1917 'Additional petrographical studies of local erratics', Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc. 12, 347-9.

Kellaway, G.A. 1971 'Glaciation and the stones of Stonehenge', Nature 233, 30-35.

Kellaway, G.A. Redding, J.H., Shephard-Thorn, E.R. and Destombes, J.P., 1975 'The Quaternary history of the English Channel', Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 279, 189-218.

Kendall, J.D. 1880 'Distribution of boulders in West Cumberland', Trans Cumberland Assoc. 5, (1879-80), 151-57.

Kendall, J.D. 1888 'The glacial deposits of West Cumberland', Trans Cumberland Assoc. 6, (1882-83), 61-78.

Kendall, P.F. and Howorth, J.H. 1902 'The Yorkshire Boulder Committee and its fifteenth year's work 1900-1901', The Naturalist, 211-16.

Kendall, P.F. and Wroot, R.F. 1924 The Geology of Yorkshire. Vienna.

Kidson, C.F. and Bowen, D.Q. 1976 'Some comments on the history of the English Channel', Quaternary Research Association Newsletter 18, 8-10.

Knowles, W.J. 1899 'Annual report on glacial geology', Proc. Belfast Nat. Field Club 4, 501-2.

Lamplugh, G.W. 1883 'On the larger boulders of Flamborough Head and other parts of the Yorkshire coast', Proc. Yorks Geol. Soc. 9, 397-423.

Lamplugh, G.W. 1887 'On the larger boulders of Flamborough Head', Proc. Yorks Geol. Soc. 9, 339-42.

Lamplugh, G.W. 1890 'On the boulders and glaciated rock-surfaces of the Yorkshire coast', Trans Brit. Assoc. Advmt Sci., 797.

Larkin, S.R and Hoare, P.G. 2009 'Norwich Castle Museum's glacial erratic database goes 'live'', Quaternary Research Association Newsletter 117, February 2009, 17-21.

Macdonald, H.A. 1961 'Some erratics from the Teifi Estuary, Western Cardiganshire', Geol. Mag. 98, 81-4.

Mackintosh, D. 1879 'Results of a systematic survey in 1878 of the direction and limits of dispersion, mode of occurrence, and relation to drift deposits of the erratic blocks or boulders of the West of England and East of Wales', Quart. Jnl Geol. Soc. 35, 425-55.

Marr, J.E. and Shipley, A.E. (eds) 1904 The Handbook to the Natural History of Cambridgeshire. Cambridge: University Press.

Maw, G. 1864 'Notes on the Drift deposits of the valley of the Severn, in the neighbourhood of Coalbrook Dale and Bridgnorth', Proc. Geol. Soc., 131-45.

Mellard Reade, T. 1893 'Eskdale Drift and its bearing on glacial geology', Geol. Mag. 10, 9-20.

Meyer, K-D. 1983 'Indicator pebbles and stone count methods' in J. Ehlers (ed) Glacial Deposits in North-west Europe. Rotterdam: Balkema. 275-87.

Milthers, V. 1909 'Scandinavian indicator-boulders in the Quaternary deposits: extension and distribution', Danmarks Geologiske Undersogelse 11:23, 1-153.

Overweel, C.J. 1977 'Distribution and transport of Fennoscandinavian indicators', Scripta Geologica 43, 1-117.

Phillips, J. 1836 'On the removal of large blocks or boulders from the Cumbrian Mountains in various directions', Rep. Brit. Assoc. Advmnt Sci., 87-8.

Raistrick, A. 1925 'A preliminary note on the glaciation of Borrowdale, Cumberland', Geol. Mag. 62, 277-9.

Rastall, R.H. and Romanes, J. 1910 'On the boulders of the Cambridge Drift, their distribution and origins', Quart. Jnl. Geol. Soc. 65, 246-64.

Rose, W.C.C. and Dunham, K.C. 1977 Geology and Haematite Deposits of South Cumbria. Geol. Surv. GB, Econ. Mem. Sh. 58, pt 48.

Sabine, P.A. 1949 'The source of some erratics from northeast Northamptonshire and adjacent parts of Huntingdonshire', Geol. Mag. 86, 255-60.

Salter, A.E. 1905 'On the superficial deposits of central and parts of Southern England', Proc. Geol. Assoc. 19, 1-56.

Sandford, K.S. 1929 'The erratic rocks and the age of the southern limit of glaciation in the Oxford district', Quart. Jnl Geol Soc., 359-88.

Sedgewick, A. 1835 'Introduction to the general structure of the Cumbrian mountains; with a description of the great dislocations by which they have been separated from the neighbouring Carboniferous chain', Trans. Geol. Soc. Lond. 4, 47-68.

Shackleton, E.H. 1977 Lakeland Geology. Clapham: Dalesman.

Shepherd, T. 1902 'The Yorkshire boulder committee and its work – a retrospect', The Naturalist, 217-221.

Skertchley, S.B.J. 1877 The Geology of the Fenland. Geol. Surv. Mem., HMSO.

Smith, B. 1912 'Glaciation of the Black Combe District (Cumberland)', Quart. Jnl Geol. Soc. 68, 402-48.

Smith, J., 1877 'Drift or glacial deposits of Ayrshire', Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow 11 (Supplement).

Smith, T. 1875 'On the occurrence of chalk flint nodules and greenstone boulders in the post-Pliocene sands (stratified) at Marionville, Edinburgh', Trans Roy. Soc. Edin. 3 (1880), 50-55.

Schudderbeurs, A.P. 1981 'Results of counts of Fennoscandinavian erratics in the Netherlands', Meded. Rijks Geol. Dienst. 34-3, 10-14.

Schudderbeurs, A.P. and Zandstra, J.G. 1983 'Indicator pebble counts in the Netherlands' in J. Ehlers (ed) Glacial Deposits in North-west Europe. Rotterdam: Balkema. 357-60.

Spjeldnoes, N. 1973 'Moraine stratigraphy, with examples from the Basal Cambrian ("Eocambrian") and Ordovician Glaciations', Bull. Geol. Instns Univ. Uppsala new ser. 5, 165-71.

Stather, J.W. 1901 'The sources and distribution of the far-travelled boulders of East Yorkshire', Proc. Geol. Assoc. Dec 4, vol. 8, 17-20.

Van der Waals, J.D. 1972 'Die durchlochten Rossener Keile und das friihe Neolithikum in Belgien und in Niederland' in H.Schwabedissen (ed) Die Anfänge des Neolithikums vom Orient bis Nordeuropa, V a (Fundamenta, Reiha A, 3), Bern und Stuttgart. 153-84.

Van Veen, F.V. 2008 'Early ideas about erratic boulders and glacial phenomena in the Netherlands' in R.H. Grapes et al. (eds) History of Geomorphology and Quaternary Geology, Geological Soc. London. 159-70.

Ward, J. Clifton 1873 'The glaciation of the northern part of the Lake-District', Quart. J. Geol. Soc. 29, 422-1.

Ward, J. Clifton 1875 'On the glaciation of the southern part of the Lake-District, and the glacial origin of the rock-basins of Cumberland and Westmoreland', Quart. J. Geol. Soc. 31, 152-66.

Ward, J. Clifton 1876 The Geology of the Northern Part of the English Lake District. Mem. Geol. Surv., HMSO.

Williams, K.E. 1927 The Glacial Drifts of Western Cardiganshire. Unpubl. MSc. thesis presented to University of Wales, Aberystwyth.

Wills, L.J. 1948 The Palaeogeography of the Midlands. Liverpool: UP.

Implement Petrography and Archaeology

Alcock, L. 1958 'Polished stone axes of Lake District origin from Leeds', Yorks Archaeol. J. 39, 391-94.

Aldhouse-Green, M.J 1977 Prehistoric Peterborough: a Guide Catalogue to Archaeological Collections in Peterborough Museum. Peterborough Museum Publications.

ApSimon, A.M. 1977 'Stone axes and Quaternary glaciation', Quat. Res. Assoc. Newsl. 23, Nov 1977, 7-8.

Berridge, P. 1994 'Cornish axe factories: fact or fiction?' in N. Ashton, and A. David (eds) Stories in Stone. Proceedings of Anniversary Conference at St Hilda's College, Oxford, April, 1993, Lithic Studies Society Occasional paper no. 4, London: British Museum. 45-56.

Binnsteiner, A. and Ruprechtsberger, E.M. 2006 Mondsee-Kulture und Analyse der Silexartefacte von See am Mondsee, Linzer Archäologische Forschunger, Sonderheft XXXV, Linz.

Bouard, M. Ricq de 1987 'Roches "Terraces"' in J-C. Miskovsky (ed) Geologie de la Prehistoire: Methodes, Techniques, Applications. CNRS: Paris. 859-70.

Bradley, R. 2000 An Archaeology of Natural Places. Routledge: London and New York.

Bradley, R. and Edmonds, M.R. 2005 Interpreting the Axe Trade: Production and Exchange in Neolithic Britain, [2nd edn Paperback] Cambridge: University Press.

Briggs, C.S. 1976a 'Notes on the distribution of some raw material in later prehistoric Britain' in C. Burgess and R. Miket (eds) Settlement and Economy in the Third and Second Millennium BC., Brit. Archaeol. Rep. 33, Oxford. 267-82.

Briggs, C.S. 1976b 'Stone axe "trade" or glacial erratics?', Current Archaeology 57, 303.

Briggs, C.S. 1976c 'Cargoes and field clearance in the history of the English Channel', Quat. Res. Assoc. Newsl. 18 (June 1976), 10-18.

Briggs, C.S. 1977 'Economy and erratics in stone age Britain', Quat. Res. Assoc. Newsl. 22 (1977), 3-6.

Briggs, C.S. 1978 'Geological and sociological processes in prehistory', Quaternary Research Association Newsletter 24 (February 1978), 1-4.

Briggs, C.S. 1979 'The stone of group VI rock from the Lynch Farm complex; a reconsideration', Durobrivae 7 (1978), 14-15.

Briggs, C.S. 1981 'Review of Stone Axe Studies, CBA Res. Rep. no. 23, 1979', Archaeol. Cambr. 131 (1981), 150-53.

Briggs, C.S. 1986 'Transported flint in Ireland: a charter of investigation for prehistory and geology' in M. Hart and G. de G. Sieveking (eds) Proc. Fourth Internat. Congr. on Flint, Brighton 1983. Cambridge: University Press. 185-90.

Briggs, C.S. 1988a 'Irish stone axes: a review', Ulster J. Archaeol. 51[1990], 5-20.

Briggs, C.S. 1988b 'The lithology, origin and dispersal of some quernstones from Yorkshire' in J. Price, P.R. Wilson, and C.S. Briggs (eds) Recent Research in Roman Yorkshire: Studies in honour of Mary Kitson Clark (Mrs Derwas Chitty). Brit. Archaeol. Rep. Brit. Ser. Oxford. 289-311.

Briggs, C.S. 1989 'Axes of Cumbrian stone', Archaeol. J. 146 (1989), 1-43 (+ microfiche), [1991].

Briggs, C.S. 1991 'Axe-making traditions in Cumbrian stone', Archaeol J. 146, 1-43.

Briggs, C.S. 2001 'The past and future of Irish implement petrography', Ulster J. Archaeol. 60 [2003], 32-46.

Briggs, C.S. 2003 'A strategy for raw materials [for Welsh Archaeology]' in C.S. Briggs (ed) Towards a Research Agenda for Welsh Archaeology. Proceedings of the IFA Wales/Cymru Conference Aberystwyth 2001, Brit. Archaeol. Rep., Brit. Ser. 343, Oxford, 201-12. [Title and text altered subsequent to submission to IFA].

Briggs, C.S. 2007 'Prehistory in the Nineteenth Century' in S.M. Pearce (ed) Visions of Antiquity: The Society of Antiquaries 1707-2007, Archaeologia 111, The Society of Antiquaries of London, 226-265.

Briggs, C.S. forthcoming 'Neolithic near-identical twins: the ambivalent relationship between 'factory' rock and polished stone implements' in R.V. Davis and M.R. Edmonds (eds) Stone Axe Studies III.

Bunch, B. and Fell, C. 1949 'A stone axe factory at Pike of Stickle, Great Langdale, Westmorland', Proc. Prehist. Soc. 15, 1-28.

Challands, A. 1973 'Excavations at Lynch Farm', Durobrivae 1, 22-24.

Clark, J.G.D. 1936 'The Worked Stone Objects' in W.J. Hemp (ed), 287-9.

Clark, J.G.D.1952 Prehistoric Europe; the Economic Basis, Cambridge: U.P.

Clark, J.G.D. 1957 Archaeology and Society, 3rd edition, Cambridge: U.P.

Clark, J.G.D. 1965 'Traffic in Stone Axe and Adze Blades', Econ. Hist. Rev. 18, 1-28.

Clough, T.H. McK. and Cummins, W.A. 1979 Stone Axe Studies. CBA Res. Rep. 23, London: CBA.

Clough, T.H. McK. and Cummins, W.A. 1988 Stone Axe Studies, Volume 2: the petrology of prehistoric stone implements from the British Isles. CBA Res. Rep. 67. London: CBA.

Cooney, G. and Mandel, S. 1998 The Irish Stone Axe Project. Monograph 1. Dublin: Wordwell.

Cowper, H.S. 1934 'Unrecorded and unusual types of stone implements', Trans Cumbs and Westmorland Architect. and Antiq. Soc. 34, 91-100.

Cummins, W.A. and Moore, C.N. 1973 'Petrological identification of stone implements from Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire and Rutland', Proc. Prehist. Soc. 39, 219-55.

Cummins, W.A. 1974 'The Neolithic stone axe trade in Britain', Antiquity 48, 210-15.

Cummins, W.A. 1977 'Stone axe trade – or glacial erratics?', Current Archaeol. 61, 42-43.

Cummins, W.A. 1979 'Neolithic stone axes: distribution and trade in England and Wales' in T.H. McK. Clough and W.A. Cummins (eds) Stone Axe Studies. CBA Res. Rep. 23, London. 5-12.

David, A.E.U. and Williams, G.H. 1995 'Stone axe-head manufacture: new evidence from the Preseli Hills, west Wales', Proc. Prehist. Soc. 61, 433-60.

Elgee, F. and Elgee, H. 1933 The Archaeology of Yorkshire. London: Methuen [1971 reprint].

Ellis, C. 1964 The Pebbles on the Beach. London: Faber.

Fell, C. 1964 'The Cumbrian type of stone axe and its distribution in Britain', Proc. Prehist. Soc. 30, 39-55.

Fennell, J.F.M. and Shotton, F.W. 1977 'Newly discovered handaxe from Broad, Warwicks', Proc. Coventry Dist. Nat. Hist. Sci. Soc. 5(1), 15-17.

Fenton, M.B. 1984 'The nature of the source and the manufacture of Scottish battle-axes and axe-hammers', Proc. Prehist. Soc. 50, 217-44.

Francis, L., Francis P.J. and Preston, J. 1988 'The petrological identification of stone implements from Ireland' in T.H. McK. Clough and W.A. Cummins (eds) Stone Axe Studies, Volume 2: the petrology of prehistoric stone implements from the British Isles. CBA Res. Rep. 67. London: CBA. 137-40.

Gardiner, J. 2004 Research Frameworks for Holocene Lithics in Britain. Lithic Studies Society supported by The Prehistoric Society and funded by English Heritage.

Grimes, W.F. 1979 'A history of implement petrology in Britain' in T. McK.Clough and W.A.Cummins (eds) Stone Axe Studies. CBA Res. Rep. 23. London. 1-4.

Hemp, W.J. 1936 'The Chambered Cairn known as Bryn yr Hen Bobl near Plas Newydd, Anglesey', Archaeologia 85, 253-292.

Houlder, C.H. 1961 'The excavations of a Neolithic stone implement site on Mynydd Rhiw, in Caernarvonshire', Proc. Prehist. Soc. 27, 108-43.

Jope, E.M. 1952 'Porcellanite axes from factories in north-east Ireland: Tievebulliagh and Rathlin', Ulster J. Archaeol. 15, 31-55.

Le Roux, Ch.-T. 1975 'Fabrication et commerce des haches en pierre polie', Les Dossiers de l'Archéologie 11, July-August 1975, 42-55.

Livens, R.G. 1958-9 'Petrology of Scottish stone implements', Proc. Soc. Antiqs Scotland 92, 56-69.

Manby, T.G. 1965 'The distribution of rough-out "Cumbrian" and related stone axes of Lake district origin in Northern England', Trans Cumbs Westmorland Archaeol. Achitect. Soc. 65, 1-37.

Pennington, W. 1975 'The effect of Neolithic Man on the environment in north-west England: the use of absolute pollen diagrams' in J.G. Evans, S. Limbrey and H. Cleere (eds) The effect of man on the landscape: the Highland Zone, CBA Res. Rep. 11, London. 74-86.

Pryor, F. 1998 Etton: Excavations at a Neolithic Causewayed Enclosure near Maxey, Cambridgeshire, 1982-7. English Heritage Research Report 18. London: English Heritage.

RCAM, 1956 An Inventory of the Ancient Monuments of Caernarvonshire Vol. 1 (East). London: HMSO.

Renfrew, C. 1977 'Alternate Models for Exchange and Spatial Distribution' in T.K Earle and J.E. Erickson (eds) Exchange Systems in Prehistory, New York: Academic Press. 71-90.

Saville, A. and Shotton, F.W. 1977 'A chipped stone implement from Over Whittacre, Warwickshire', Proc. Coventry Nat. Hist. and Sci. Soc. 5(2), 68-70.

Shackley, S. 1987 'Comment on "Tomato Springs: the identification of a jasper trade and production center in Southern California"', Amer. Antiq 52, 616-30.

Shepherd, T. 1920 'The origin of the materials used in the manufacture of prehistoric stone weapons in East Yorkshire', Trans East Riding Antiq. Soc. 23, 34-54.

Shotton, F.W. 1968 'Prehistoric man's use of stone', Proc. Geol. Soc. 79, 477-92.

Shotton, F.W. 1976 'The stone axe trade and Quaternary glaciation', Quat. Res. Newsl. (Nov. 1976), 4-6.

Stone, J.F.S. and Wallis, F.S. 1951 'Third report of the Sub-Committee on the petrological identification of stone axes', Proc. Prehist. Soc. 17, 99-158.

Van der Waals, J.D. 1972 'Die durchlochten Rossener Keile und das friihe Neolithikum in Belgien und in Niederland' in H.Schwabedissen (ed) Die Anfänge des Neolithikums vom Orient bis Nordeuropa, V a (Fundamenta, Reiha A, 3), Bern und Stuttgart. 153-84.

Williams-Thorpe, O., Aldiss, D., Rigby, I.J., and Thorpe, R.S. 1999 'Geochemical provenancing of igneous glacial erratics from southern Britain, and implications for prehistoric stone implement distributions', Geoarchaeology 14, 209-46.

Williams-Thorpe, O., Webb, P.C. and Jones, M.C. 2003 'Non-destructive geochemical and magnetic characterisation of Group XVIII dolerite stone axes and shaft-hole implements from England', J. Archaeol. Sci. 30(10), 1237-67.


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