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Figure 2: Process rates and system hierarchy. System processes are here represented by sine curves of different frequencies (f). Low frequency dynamics exert causal effects on dynamics operating at all higher frequencies (downward arrow).The impact of high frequency dynamics on lower dynamics is limited by the capacity of low frequency 'black box' linking mechanisms to transmit them. Consequently systems resolve into process rate hierarchical levels, and the effect of high frequency processes is progressively damped as one 'ascends' the system (upward arrow).

Figure 2

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