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Table 68: List of plant taxa, showing number of samples for which each taxon was recorded for both sites. Also listed are other materials recorded during examination of samples for plant remains. Material was preserved anoxic waterlogging unless otherwise indicated. Nomenclature and taxonomic order follow Tutin et al. (1964-80) and Smith (1978).
No. of contexts examined No. of subsamples examined
1980-8114 11
1994 14 20
Taxon Common name Parts recorded 1980-81 1994
Vascular plants
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn bracken pinnule fragments,charred pinnule fragments - 1
charred pinnule fragments 1 -
Coniferae conifer charcoal fragments - 1
Corylus avellana L. hazel nuts and/or nutshell fragments 2
charred nuts and/or nutshell fragments 1 2
Quercus sp(p). oak wood fragments 1 2
Ficus carica L. fig seeds 2 1
Urtica dioica L. stinging nettle achenes - 1
U. urens L. annual nettle achenes - 1
Polygonum aviculare agg. knotgrass fruits - 1
P. persicaria L. persicaria/red shank fruits - 3
charred fruits 1 -
P. lapathifolium L. pale persicaria fruits - 1
Bilderdykia convolvulus (L.) Dumort. black bindweed fruit fragments - 1
Rumex acetosella agg. sheep's sorrel fruits - 1
Rumex sp(p). docks fruits - 3
Chenopodium album L. fat hen seeds - 2
Atriplex sp(p). oraches seeds - 2
Spergula arvensis L. corn spurrey seeds - 2
charred seeds 1 -
Agrostemma githago L. corncockle seed fragments - 3
S. vulgaris/S. alba (Miller) Krause in Sturm bladder/white campion seeds - 1
Ranunculus Section Ranunculus meadow/creeping/bulbous buttercup achenes - 1
Brassica rapa L. 'turnip' seeds - 2
Brassica sp(p). cabbages, etc. seeds - 3
Brassica sp./Sinapis arvensis L. brassica/charlock seeds - 1
Raphanus raphanistrum L. wild radish pod segments and/or fragments 1 -
Reseda luteola L. weld/dyer's rocket seeds - 2
Rubus idaeus L. raspberry seeds - 1
R. fruticosus agg. blackberry/bramble seeds - 2
Fragaria cf. vesca L. ?wild strawberry achenes - 1
Malus sylvestris Miller crab apple endocarp - 2
Sorbus aucuparia L. rowan, mountain ash seeds - 1
Linum usitatissimum L. cultivated flax seed fragments - 1
Viola sp(p). violets/pansies, etc. seeds - 1
Erica tetralix L. cross-leaved heath leaf/leaves - 1
Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull heather, ling charred shoot fragments 1 -
shoot tips - 1
cf. C. vulgaris ?heather, ling charred root and/or basal twig fragments 2 3
shoot fragments - 1
Empetrum sp(p). crowberry seeds - 1
Galeopsis Subgenus Galeopsis hemp-nettles nutlets - 3
Rhinanthus sp(p). yellow rattles seeds - 1
Centaurea sp(p). knapweeds, etc. achene fragments - 1
Leontodon sp(p). hawkbits achenes - 1
Taraxacum sp(p). dandelions achenes - 1
Lapsana communis L. nipplewort achenes - 3
Potamogeton sp(p). pondweeds charred pyrenes 1 -
Gramineae grasses waterlogged caryopses - 1
Cerealia indet. cereals charred awns/awn fragments 2 -
cf. Cerealia indet. ?cereals charred caryopses 1 -
Triticum/Secale wheat/rye waterlogged periderm fragments - 1
Avena sp(p). oats charred caryopses 1 2
Eleocharis palustris sensu lato common spike-rush nutlets - 1
Carex sp(p). sedges nutlets - 1
charred nutlets - 1
Mosses (leaf/leaves and/or shoot fragments unless otherwise indicated)
Sphagnum papillosum Lindb. - 1
Sphagnum sp(p). capsules and/or lids - 1
leaves and/or shoot fragments - 4
Dicranum sp(p). - 1
Aulacomnium palustre (Hedw.) Schwaegr. 1
Drepanocladus sp(p). - 1
Hypnum cf. cupressiforme Hedw. - 1
Rhytidiadelphus sp(p). - - 2
Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Br. Eur. - 2
Other plant material
bark fragments - 5
bark fragments (charred) 1
charcoal 10 8
epidermis fragments - 2
moss - 2
root casts 1
root/rhizome fragments (charred) - 2
twig fragments - 3
twig fragments (charred) - 1
wood fragments 1 8
wood fragments (mineralised) - 1
Fungal remains
Cenococcum sclerotia - 5
charred sclerotia - 1
fungal spores - 1
Remains of ?fuel/burnt material
'char' - 1
charred organic material 1 -
cinders - 1
coal - 2
part-burnt coal - 1
glassy ash 1 -
peat fragments 3 6
burnt peat fragments 4 2
?burnt peat fragments 2 3
?burnt soil 2 -
?peat fragments 1 2
Concretions and coprolites
concreted sediment 1 1
concretions 1 1
faecal concretions - 1
?faecal concretions 1 -
Artefactual materials
animal hairs - 2
green-glazed pottery - 1
Invertebrates
bivalve periostracum - 1
earthworm egg caps - 3
fly puparia - 6
mites - 1
mollusc opercula - 2
mussel shell fragments - 2
rat-tailed maggot (respiratory processes) - 1
Vertebrates
bird bone - 1
bone fragments 2 3
burnt bone fragments - 2
burnt fish bone - 1
eggshell membrane fragments - 2
fish bone 2 3
mammal bone - 1

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