Alfonso, M.P. and Powell, J. 2007 'Ethics of flesh and bone, or ethics in the practice of paleopathology, osteology, and bioarchaeology' in V.Cassman, N. Odegaard and J. Powell (eds) Human Remains: Guide for Museums and Academic Institutions, Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press. 5-21.

Association of Computing Machinery 2018 ACM code of ethics and professional conduct, [Last accessed: 5 December 2018]

Bailey, J. 2017 'Machine learning for art valuation. An interview with Ahmed Hosny',, [Last accessed: 17 December 2018]

Bethard, J.D., Berger, J.M. and Maiers, J. 2018 'Bone mineral density adult age estimation in forensic anthropology: a test of the DXAGE application', Journal of Forensic Sciences

Bowman, B.A. 2008 'Transnational crimes against culture: looting at archaeological sites and the “grey” market in antiquities', Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 24, 225-42.

Brendel, W. and Bethge, M. 2019 'Approximating CNNs with Bag-of-local-Features models works surprisingly well on ImageNet', [Last accessed: 14 February 2019]

Carney, S. 2011 The Red Market: On the Trail of the World's Organ Brokers, Bone Thieves, Blood Farmers, and Child Traffickers, New York: William Morrow.

Charette, R.N. 2019 'Errors found in forensic software meant to assess age of death of skeletal remains. Problem highlights increasing concerns about validity of digital forensic apps', IEEE [Last accessed: 16 February 2019]

Chesler, A. 2013 'Open access: a review of an emerging phenomenon', Serials Review 30, 292-97.

Clark, L. 2016 'AI is being used to hunt out child porn and sexual abuse images across the web', [Last accessed: 23 December 2018]

Dao, D. 2018 'Awful AI is a curated list to track current scary usages of AI: hoping to raise awareness', [Last accessed: 3 January 2019]

De Castro, P. and Salinetti, S. 2004 'Quality of grey literature in the open access era: privilege and responsibility', Publishing Research Quarterly 20, 4-12.

Eubanks, V. 2017 Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police, and Punish the Poor, New York: St Martins Press.

Fong, R. and Cardoso, J.B. 2010 'Child human trafficking victims: challenges for the child welfare system', Evaluation and Program Planning 33, 311-16.

Gill, J.R., Rainwater, C.W. and Adams, B.J. 2009 'Santeria and Palo Mayombe: skulls, mercury, and artifacts', Journal of Forensic Sciences 54, 1458-62.

Goss, T. 2018 'These 7 apps will help you identify unknown plants and flowers',, [Last accessed: 5 December 2018]

Gross, D. 2018 'Tanzania joins international movement demanding return of human remains in Germany', Hyperallergic, 16 March 2018 [Last accessed: 19 Februrary 2019]

Hanson, F.A. 2009 'Beyond the skin bag: on the moral responsibility of extended agencies', Ethics and Information Technology 11(1), 91–99.

Halling, C.L. and Seidemann, R.M. 2016 'They sell skulls online?! A review of internet sales of human skulls on eBay and the laws in place to restrict sales', Journal of Forensic Sciences 61, 1322-26.

Huffer, D. 2018 'The living and the dead entwined in virtual space: #Bioarchaeology and being a bioarchaeologist on Instagram', Advances in Archaeological Practice 6, 267-73.

Huffer, D. and Charlton, N. forthcoming 'A picture worth one thousand words? Taphonomy as a means to assess age and authenticity in the online trade in Dayak and Asmat modified human remains' in J.-P. Imbert (ed) The Great Skull Project, Mexico City: Uroboros Basilisco Press.

Huffer, D. and Graham, S. 2017 'The Insta-Dead: the rhetoric of the human remains trade on Instagram', Internet Archaeology 45.

Huffer, D. and Graham, S. 2018 'Fleshing out the bones: studying the human remains trade with Tensorflow and Inception', Journal of Computer Applications in Archaeology 1, 55–63.

Jibréus, D. 2014 'The long journey of White Fox', Nebraska History 95, 100-23.

Joseph, G. and Lipp, K. 2018 'IBM used NYPD surveillance footage to develop technology that lets police search by skin color', [Last accessed: 5 December 2018]

Kim, B., Wattenberg, M., Gilmer, J., Cai, C., Wexler, J., Viegas, F. and Sayres, R. 2017 'Interpretability beyond feature attribution: quantitative testing with concept activation vectors (TCAV)', arXiv:1711.11279 [stat.ML]

Kirkegaard, E.O.W. and Bjerrekaer, J.D. 2016 'The OKCupid dataset: a very large public dataset of dating site users', Open Differential Psychology 46, 1-3.

Kotikalapudi, R. et al. 2017 Keras Visualization Toolkit [Last accessed: 14 March 2019]

Kozlowska, I. 2018 'Facebook and data privacy in the age of Cambridge Analytica', [Last accessed: 27 December 2018]

Krizhevsky, A., Sutskever, I. and Hinton, G.E. 2012 'Imagenet classification with deep convolutional neural networks' in F. Pereiran, C.J.C. Burges, L. Bottou and K.Q. Weinberger (eds) Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 25, NIPS 2012. 1097–1105.

Lee, D. 2018 'Predictim babysitter app: Facebook and Twitter take action', [Last accessed: 13 December 2018]

Lee, T.B. 2018 'How computers got shockingly good at recognizing images', Ars Technica, 18 December 2018 [Last accessed: 20 December 2018]

Mackenzie, S. and Yates, D. 2017 'What is grey about the “grey market” in antiquities?' in J. Beckert and M. Dewey (eds) The Architecture of Illegal Markets: Towards an Economic Sociology of Illegality in the Economy, Oxford: Oxford University Press. 70-87.

Márquez-Grant, N. and Fibiger, L. (eds) 2011 The Routledge Handbook of Archaeological Human Remains and Legislation, London: Routledge Handbooks.

Márquez-Grant, N. and Squires, K. (eds) 2018 Ethical Challenges in the Analysis of Human Remains, London: Springer Press.

Merrillees, L. 2017 'Is “Uber for babysitters” app Gobi the future of childcare or a step too far?', step-too-far/9063068 [Last accessed: 13 December 2018]

Noble, S.U. 2018 Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism, New York: New York University Press.

O'Neill, C. 2016 Weapons of Math Destruction: How big data increases inequality and threatens democracy, London: Allen Lane.

Onuoha, M. and Mother Cyborg (Diana Nucera) 2018 'A people's guide to AI', Allied Media Projects, 18 September 2018 [Last accessed: 21 December 2018]

Paul, K.A. 2018 'Ancient artifacts vs. digital artifacts: new tools for unmasking the sale of illicit antiquities on the Dark Web', Arts 7(2), 12.

Pokines, J.T. 2015 'A Santería/Palo Mayombe ritual cauldron containing a human skull and multiple artifacts recovered in western Massachusetts, USA', Forensic Science International 248, e1-e7.

Pokines, J.T., Appel, N., Pollock, C., Eck, C.J., Maki, A.G., Joseph, A.S., Cadwell, L. and Young, C.D. 2017 'Anatomical taphonomy at the source: alterations to a sample of 84 teaching skulls at a medical school', Journal of Forensic Identification 67, 600632.

Redman, S.J. 2016 Bone Rooms: From Scientific Racism to Human Prehistory in Museums, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Reuters 2018 'Amazon ditched AI recruiting tool that favored men for technical jobs', The Guardian, 10 October 2018. [Last accessed: 3 Jan 2019]

Richardson, L-J. 2018 'Ethical challenges in digital public archaeology', Journal of Computer Applications in Archaeology 1(1), 64–73.

Risam, R. 2018 New Digital Worlds: Postcolonial Digital Humanities in Theory, Praxis, and Pedagogy, Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press.

Rivet, F. 2014 In the Footsteps of Abraham Ulrikab: The Events of 1880–1888, Gatineau, Quebec: Polar Horizons.

Rivet, F. 2015 'Homecoming', Inuktitut 117, 32-37.

Rivet, F. 2016 'Bringing the Inuit home',,-inuit-metis/bringing-the-inuit-home [Last accessed: 19 December 2018]

Roque, R. 2010 Headhunting and Colonialism: Anthropology and the Circulation of Human Skulls in the Portuguese Empire, 1870-1930, Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Samuel, S. 2018 'China is going to outrageous lengths to surveil its own citizens', The [Last accessed: 5 December 2018]

Scarre, C. and Scarre, G. (eds) 2006 The Ethics of Archaeology: Philosophical Perspectives on Archaeological Practice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schmidhuber, J. 2015 'Deep learning in neural networks: an overview', Neural Networks 61, 85-117.

Schotsmans, E.M.J., Márquez-Grant, N. and Forbes, S.L. (eds) 2017 Taphonomy of Human Remains: Forensic Analysis of the Dead and the Depositional Environment, London: Wiley-Blackwell.

Seidemann, R.M., Stojanowski, C.M. and Rich, F.J., 2009. 'The identification of a human skull recovered from an eBay sale', Journal of Forensic Sciences 54, 1247-53.

Selvaraju, R.R., Chattopadhyay, P., Elhoseiny, M., Sharma, T., Batra, D., Parikh, D. and Lee, S. 2018 'Choose your neuron: incorporating domain knowledge through neuron-importance', Proceedings of ECCV 18, arXiv:1808.02861v1 [cs.CV]

Sysling, F. 2016 Racial Science and Human Diversity in Colonial Indonesia, Singapore: NUS Press.

Szegedy, C, Liu, W, Jia, Y, Sermanet, P, Reed, S, Anguelov, D, Erhan, D, Vanhoucke, V. and Rabinovich, A. 2014 'Going deeper with convolutions', arXiv:1409.4842 [cs.CV]

Tarantola, A. 2016 'Interpol is using AI to hunt down child predators online', [Last accessed: 23 December 2018]

Temiño, I.R., Yáñez, A., Villar, S.J., Mateo, A.R., Rus, J.R., Álvarez, J.S. and Berdonces, A.C.L. 2018 'Forensic archaeometry applied to antiquities trafficking: an investigation at the frontiers of knowledge', Arts

Tennant, J.P., Waldner, F., Jacques, D.C., Masuzzo, P., Collister, L.B. and Hartgerink, C.H.J. 2016 'The academic, economic and societal impacts of Open Access: an evidence-based review', F1000Research 5:632

Tharoor, I. 2016 'Over 1,000 African skulls in Berlin are a reminder of Europe's dark colonial history', Washington Post [Last accessed: 19 Feb. 2019]

Tilton, L. 2016 'Preservation first? Re-viewing film digitization', Collections: A Journal for Museum and Archives Professionals 12, 391-99.

Thompson, L. and Mimno, D. 2017 'Computational cut-ups: the influence of Dada', The Journal of Modern Periodical Studies 8(2), 179-95.

Ulrikab, A. and Lutz, H. 2005 The Diary of Abraham Ulrikab: Text and Context, Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.

Valentino-DeVries, J., Singer, N., Keller, M.H. and Krolik, A. 2018 'Your Apps know where you were last night, and they're not keeping it secret', The New York Times, 10 December 2018. [Last accessed: 3 Jan 2019]

van der Maaten, L. 2014 'Accelerating t-SNE using tree-based algorithms', Journal of Machine Learning Research 15, 3221-45.

van der Maaten, L. and Hinton, G.E. 2008 'Visualizing high-dimensional data using t-SNE', Journal of Machine Learning Research 9, 2579-2605.

Wexler, L., Tilton, L., Arnold, T., Leonard, P., Kirkpatrick, T., DeRose, C. and Ong Reed, M. 2016 Photogrammar [Last accessed: 21 December 2018]

Wevers, M. Smits, T. and Impett, L. 2018 ImageTexts: Studying Texts and Images in Conjunction (Poster), DH18.

Williams, H.M.R. 2019 'Selling dead bodies and mortuary artefacts in the UK today: Welbeck Hill', Archaeodeath: The Archaeology and Heritage of Death & Memory [Last accessed: 16 February 2019]

Williams, P. 2018 The Dinosaur Artist: Obsession, Betrayal, and the Quest for Earth's Ultimate Trophy, New York: Hatchett Books.

Witten, I.H., Frank, E., Hall, M.A. and Pal, C.J. (eds) 2017 Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques, Cambridge, MA: Elsevier.

Zech, J. 2018 'What are radiological deep learning models actually learning?', Medium [Last accessed: 17 December 2018]

Zech, J.R., Badgeley, M.A., Liu, M., Costa, A.B., Titano, J.J. and Oermann, E.K. 2018 'Confounding variables can degrade generalization performance of radiological deep learning models', arXiv:1807.00431 [cs.CV]

Zimmerman, L.J., Vitelli, K.D. and Hollowell-Zimmer, J. (eds) 2003 Ethical Issues in Archaeology, Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.


Internet Archaeology is an open access journal based in the Department of Archaeology, University of York. Except where otherwise noted, content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY) Unported licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that attribution to the author(s), the title of the work, the Internet Archaeology journal and the relevant URL/DOI are given.

Terms and Conditions | Legal Statements | Privacy Policy | Cookies Policy | Citing Internet Archaeology

Internet Archaeology content is preserved for the long term with the Archaeology Data Service. Help sustain and support open access publication by donating to our Open Access Archaeology Fund.