Mini journal logo  Home Issue Contents All Issues

Nature Management and Protection of Archaeological Sites in Estonia

Anu Lillak

Cite this as: Lillak, A. 2023 Nature Management and Protection of Archaeological Sites in Estonia, Internet Archaeology 62.


This article describes the nature conservation-related management of archaeological monuments in Estonia and discusses examples of such cases
Double managed stone of St Lawrence in Kuusalu – protected by both Nature and Heritage Conservation Acts, marked with two different placards. A. Lillak

Archaeological monuments are mostly situated in the natural environment and in Estonia are sometimes also protected under the Nature Conservation Act, meaning they are doubly protected and doubly managed as well. The system has its challenges, benefits and dangers, since the protection regimes for nature or heritage protection sites are slightly different. In some cases, they complement each other, but there are cases where the protection regimes may diverge. The nature conservation-related management of archaeological monuments in Estonia is described and a few examples of such cases are discussed.

  • Google Scholar
  • Keywords: archaeological heritage, heritage management, heritage conservation, nature conservation, nature management
  • Accepted: 14 November 2022. Published: 23 March 2023
  • Funding: The publication of this article is funded by the European Archaeological Council.
  • PDF download (main article text only)

Corresponding author: Anu Lillak
Archaeology adviser, National Heritage Board, Estonia

Full text

Figure 1: Double managed stone of St Lawrence in Kuusalu – protected by both Nature and Heritage Conservation Acts, marked with two different placards. A. Lillak

Figure 2: Blue depicts the Kavilda ruined fort and former hill-fort site monuments and red depicts the nature protection zone. Land Board

Figure 3: The Pahnimägi hill on a relief map of the Land Board. Green depicts the new landscape conservation area of local significance, blue depicts the existing hill fort with a lighter blue buffer zone and purple depicts the archaeologically as yet unprotected dwelling area connected with the hill fort that either has to be added to the hill fort area or has to be protected as a separate archaeological monument

Jonuks, T. 2021 Arheoloogiliste uuringute aruanne Kloodi Pahnimäe linnusel (reg-nr 10354) ja ajutise kaitse all oleval asulakohal (reg-nr AK 31147) ning eksperdihinnang mälestise ja selle kaitsevööndi ulatuse ja piiride kohta. National Heritage Board archive. Excavation report and expertise.

Kadakas, U. 2020 'Archaeological heritage and the new Heritage Conservation Act. A short overview about the development of the government regulation', Archaeological Fieldwork in Estonia 2019, 243−52.

Kadakas, U. 2022 'Archaeological heritage as a sustainer of biodiversity', Internet Archaeology 60.

Kadakas, U. and Lillak, A. 2020 'Managing the managers: State control over the monuments in Estonia', Internet Archaeology 54.

RMK Visit Management Department 2022 'Külastajaseire RMK-s. Külastusobjektide külastatavus'

The Acts

The Heritage Conservation Act –

The Income Tax Act –

The Land Tax Act –

The Nature Conservation Act –

The regulations

Regulation no. 10 of the Minister of Environment 14.04.2014 'Erametsanduse toetuse andmise alused, taotluse kohta esitatavad nõuded, toetuse taotlemise ja taotluse menetlemise kord, taotluse hindamise alused ning toetuse tagasinõudmise kord' ('Basis for granting support for private forestry, requirements for the application, procedure for applying for support and processing the application, basis for evaluating the application and procedure for claiming back the support') –

Regulation no. 39 of the Minister of Rural Affairs 22.04.2015 'Natura 2000 erametsamaa toetus' ('Subsidy for Natura 2000 private forest land') –

Regulation no. 11 of the Government of the Republic 29.10.2015 'Rakvere Vallimäe ja Pahnimäe kaitse alla võtmise otsuste kehtetuks tunnistamine' ('Revocation of decisions on the protection of Rakvere Vallimägi and Pahnimägi') –

Regulation no. 8 of Rakvere municipal council 30.08.2017 'Pahnimäe maastikukaitseala moodustamine ja kaitse-eeskiri' ('Creation and Rules for the protection of Pahnimägi landscape protection area') –

Regulation no. 25 of the Minister of Culture 15.05.2019 'Uuringu liigid, uuringu tegemise ja sellega seotud kulu hüvitamise kord ning uuringuteatise vorminõuded ja teatise esitamise kord' ('Types of studies, procedures for reimbursement of the costs of conducting the study and related expenses, and formalities for the notification of the study and procedures for submitting the research notices') –

Regulation no. 56 of the Government of the Republic 09.07.2020. 'Kavilda ürgoru maastikukaitseala kaitse-eeskiri' ('Rules for the protection of the Kavilda Ürgorg landscape protection area') –

Regulation no. 22 of the Minister of Culture 31.07.2020 'Mälestise ja muinsuskaitsealal asuva ehitise säilitamise toetamise tingimused ja kord' ('Conditions and procedure for supporting the preservation of a monument and a building located in a heritage conservation area') –

Internet Archaeology is an open access journal based in the Department of Archaeology, University of York. Except where otherwise noted, content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY) Unported licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that attribution to the author(s), the title of the work, the Internet Archaeology journal and the relevant URL/DOI are given.

Terms and Conditions | Legal Statements | Privacy Policy | Cookies Policy | Citing Internet Archaeology

Internet Archaeology content is preserved for the long term with the Archaeology Data Service. Help sustain and support open access publication by donating to our Open Access Archaeology Fund.