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  1. Whilst the theory requires that any duplicate rows in the result are automatically removed, practical query languages like SQL allow the user to choose between results with or without duplicate rows. Although often described as 'set-based' or 'set-oriented' languages, they are strictly multiset-oriented. [back]

  2. Although many purists might object, in practice this requirement is often relaxed and most OO programming languages allow a distinction between private (hidden) and public (directly accessible) attributes. Some also support intermediate levels of information hiding in which access to some attributes and methods may be restricted to objects of particular classes only. [back]

  3. Middleware is so widely used as a marketing term to describe anything between the client browser and the target resource that it has long ceased to have any useful meaning. [back]

  4. See also Wall et al. 1996 and http://www.perl.org. [back]

  5. http://java.sun.com/products/jsp/product.html also includes links to several tutorials and articles comparing JSP with other server-side scripting approaches. [back]

  6. XSP is supported by Cocoon, a part of the Apache XML project, see http://xml.apache.org/cocoon/index.html and McLaughlin 2000. [back]

  7. For a prototype system that delivers different tourist information according to a user's location, device capabilities and interests, see Ryan 2002. [back]

  8. The Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998), see http://www.fgdc.gov/metadata/metadata.html [back]

  9. ISO 23950: "Information Retrieval (Z39.50): Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification", see http://www.loc.gov/z3950/agency/ [back]

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Last updated: Wed 28 Jan 2004