6.3 Arroux Valley pottery forms

Jars and bowls (Ecuelles and jattes E(AV))

E(AV)1 (Figs. 78, 1; 83, 27-29; 89)
Jars with triangular, moulded inturning rim (jatte levre en triangle rentrant moulouré) are a common find from both the Arroux valley survey and from Autun. Dating is imprecise, with the form having an apparently long history, within which particular groups and types are present. Simon (2003) gives the best current estimation of dates and particular forms within the E(AV) group can be placed within his time frame. E(AV)1.1 appears to parallel his Horizon 1 (AD 15-40), although relatively similar forms continue until Horizon 3 (AD 70-140), suggesting perhaps a precise date for individual forms is not possible. Parallels for E(AV)1.1 can also be found at the Sources de l'Yonne, dating probably to the 1st century AD (Péquinot et al. 1996, 220) and there is some suggestion that (E(AV)1.4) may also be refined to the later 1st century AD (P. Nouvel, pers. comm.). The version E(AV)1.2, with a less acutely angled body, appears to be a later phenomenon, possibly of 2nd century AD date

E(AV)2 (Fig. 80, 11)
Jar with inturned simple triangular rim. Similar to E(AV)1. No direct parallels. Probably 1st century AD in date.

E(AV)3.1 (Fig. 82, 26), E(AV)3.2 (Fig. 83, 30-31), E(AV)3.3 (Fig. 83, 32), E(AV)3.4 (Fig. 80, 12)
Jars with an inturning rim and beaded profile (jatte à bord rentrant mouluré). This group can be placed within the wider tradition represented also by form E(AV)1. Affinities for E(AV)3.1 and E(AV)3.2 can be found in examples from Autun (Alfonso 1999, fig. 197, nos 4 and 5), although the latter are larger and have a shoulder below the rim. These forms come from deposits of the later 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, although the sequence of these types is not entirely clear (Alfonso 1999, 249). Forms like this are not, however, present at the Leclerc site (Simon 2003). Similar forms to E(AV)3.3 can be found from the theatre at Argentomagus, Indre, dating from the early 2nd century AD (Dumasy 2000, 84), and at Roanne dating to the late 1st century AD (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997, pl. 60, no. 2). Neither E(AV)1 nor E(AV)3 is represented in the assemblage from the Augustan cave (cellar) at the Hôpital civil in Autun.

E(AV)4.1, 4.2 (Fig. 83, 33-35)
Simple inturned rimmed bowls, with an acute angled inturning rim, can be paralleled at Roanne (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997, pl. 66, no. 17), dating to the 1st century AD. The form is reminiscent of the E4-E6 types from Mont Beuvray which have an Augustan date. The examples from the Arroux valley are best regarded as 1st century AD in date.

E(AV)5.1 (Fig. 80, 13)
An inturned rim with shoulder. Similar forms are discussed by Joly (1994, fig. 2, no. 10; 1996, fig. 16, no. 4), although they are not exactly the same. Joly regards these latter as produced at Saint Ambreuil-La Ferté (Saone-et-Loire), and suggests production at this location in the late 2nd and 3rd century AD (1996, 125). Similar inturned rims can be found at Roanne (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997, pl. 109, 1-4), from late 2nd century AD contexts and Bourbon-Lancy from the earlier 2nd century AD (Joly 1990, 176). A somewhat similar form is also noted by Simon (2003, 302), which he dates to the later 1st century AD, possibly providing a typological antecedent. The lack of similar forms from the Augustan cellar at L'Hôpital and also from Mont Beuvray is chronologically significant, suggesting this form occurs from the later 1st century AD onwards.

E(AV)6.1 (Fig. 83, 36)
Out-turned rim with ribbed decoration. No direct parallels.

E(AV)7.1 (Fig. 80, 14)
Exterior ribbed bowls with inturned rims. This form fits into the tradition of oblique angled rim bowls (marmites) seen at Roanne and elsewhere. Parallels in form exist at Roanne (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997, pl. 108, no. 12. and pl. 94, no. 3) dating to the 2nd century AD.

Beakers (Gobelets G(AV))

G(AV)1 (Fig. 84, 37)
Rhenish, thin-walled beakers with out-turned rim and metallescent decoration (Symonds 1992). Parallels for Figure 80.12 (G(AV) 1.1) can be found at Domecy-sur-Cure (Joly 1999, fig. 12, no. 5), Saint-Marcel (Indre) (Dumasy 2000, fig. 75, no. 2), and Champallement (Nièvre), dating from the 2nd century AD (see also Symonds 1992).

G(AV)2.1 (Fig. 91, 84, 86; 94, 99), G(AV) 2.2 (Fig. 91, 85)
Open-mouthed, lipped beakers/jars. These occur in micaceous fabrics (B4), which appear chronologically distinct from Gallo-Roman fabrics. Parallels for these forms are hard to find in the local region but appear similar to forms of the 5th and 6th century AD elsewhere (e.g. Tuffreau-Libre 1992; Raynaud 1990).

Jars ('pots' P(AV))

P(AV)1.1 (Fig. 85, 39)
Jars, out-turned rim with interior rib. The example in Delor (2003, fig. 3, no. 11) appears to be in a similar fabric to the example from the Arroux valley. That example appears to derive from an Augustan context. Additional parallels can be found at Mont Beuvray, where this form has similarities with Beuvray form P19a, although it is certainly not the same and the fabrics are different from the Mont Beuvray examples, where they occur in Horizons 1-4 (Paunier and Luginbühl 2004). At Roanne, similar forms are found predominantly in Horizon 8 (mid- 1st century AD). While it cannot be established for certain, the apparent occurrence of this form in these early contexts may suggest it is predominantly a 1st-century AD phenomenon.

P(AV)2.1 (Fig. 85, 40)
Carinated collared jar, widely paralleled in the Burgundy region, with similar examples produced in Chenoves (Sâone-et-Loire) and elsewhere, a squatter form deriving from La Chapelle-de-Guinchay (Joly 1996). Joly (1994; 1996) dates this form from all these locations to the 1st century AD, although the form may well continue as late as the 3rd century AD (J. Simon, pers. comm.).

P(AV)3.1 (Fig. 85, 41)
Flattened rim with rib of open-mouthed jar. This form relates to the P(AV)8 group but has less of an out-turned rim.

P(AV)4.1 (Fig. 80, 15), P(AV)4.2 (Fig. 85, 42), P(AV)4.3 (Fig. 85, 43)
Jar or pitcher with squared rim. This open-mouthed group of jars can be paralleled at the Sources de l'Yonne (Péquinot et al. 1996, fig. 13, no. 13), where they are associated with Besançon type pottery and are therefore likely to date to the early 1st century AD/Augustan period.

P(AV)4.4 (Fig. 92, 90)
A squared rim with internal lip. Similar forms can be found at Roanne (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997, pl. 68, no. 9) where they occur in the mid- 1st century AD. Pierre Nouvel (pers. comm.) also suggests a 1st century AD date for examples in the Yonne region.

P(AV)5.1 (Fig. 85, 44)
An everted rim with small cordon on neck. Similar vessels occur elsewhere in assemblages of La Tène D date (P. Nouvel, pers. comm.), although parallels are hard to find in the immediate region and the form does not occur at Mont Beuvray. The black fabric in which this is found may also suggest a possible late La Tène date.

P(AV)6.1 (Fig. 85, 45)
Jar with angular out-turned stepped rim. This form can be paralleled with jars from the Lycée militaire in Autun and elsewhere, which are dated to the late 2nd and 3rd century AD (Chardron-Picault and Pernot 1999, fig. 198, no. 3; Sénéchal 1985, 124; J. Simon, pers. comm.), but also has affinities with late Roman types (see Tuffreau-Libre 1992, 109), in which case it might date to the 4th or 5th century AD (P. Nouvel, pers. comm.).

P(AV)6.2 (Fig. 80, 16)
Out-turned rim of jar. Parallels in the region are hard to find and closest parallels appears to be a late-Roman form with examples from Les Mureaux (Yvelines) suggesting a possible 4th-5th century AD date (Tuffreau-Libre 1992, 109).

P(AV)6.3 (Fig. 85, 46)
Open-mouthed jar with rib below the rim. Very close parallels at Roanne (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997, pl. 90, no. 7) derive from early 2nd-century AD contexts. Usually found in hard, well-fired greywares.

P(AV)6.4 (Fig. 92, 91)
Acute angled out-turned rim of small jar. Similar examples from Roanne (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997, pl. 119, 5) dating to the 3rd century AD.

P(AV)7.1./7.2 (Fig. 79, 7, Fig. 85, 47)
Flat-topped, out-turned rounded rim, with rib below the rim.

P(AV)8.1 (Fig. 79, 8, Fig. 85, 48, Fig. 93, 98)
Jar with out-turned flattened rim, rib along rim. The closest parallels come from the Hôpital d'Autun site, dating to the 1st century AD (Delor 2004, 626) and, although they cannot be directly paralleled at Beuvray, they can be placed within the tradition of the P25 group. The form can be placed in the broader 'Besançon' type with examples from the Sources de l'Yonne (Péquinot et al. 1996, 221) and also from Nevers (Barral and Joly 2002, 260). This type of pottery dates to the end of the 1st century BC and early 1st century AD.

P(AV)8.2 (Fig. 85, 49)
Jar with out-turned rim. Similar examples of this form can be seen at Roanne (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997, pl. 90, 8) dating to the later 2nd century AD.

P(AV)9.1 (Fig. 80, 17)
Acute angled everted rim of jar. Forms may be paralleled in Autun at the Lycée militaire (Alfonso 1999, fig. 184, no. 4) where they occur in 2nd/3rd-century AD contexts.

P(AV)10.1 (Fig. 80, 18)
Ovoid jars (vase ovoide) with squared rim. These are commonly found in Autun and while direct parallels for this type are not that common, it may be placed in the broader group found at the Lycée militaire site (Alfonso 1999, fig. 180, nos 7-9) in a 2nd-century AD context, and the Hôpital d'Autun (Delor 2004, 632, P7). Joly also identifies this form as generally later 2nd century AD in date (Joly 1994, 100). Similar forms from Bourbon-Lancy are from the earlier part of the 2nd century AD (Rouvier-Jeanlin et al. 1990, 190).

P(AV)11. 1 (Fig. 86, 50)
Wide, open-mouthed jars distinguished by the angular external form of the rim and acutely angled mouth, as opposed to the curved interior of P(AV)10. Generally this form appears to be rarely noted at Autun or at Roanne. These forms may be late (?after 3rd century AD). Similar forms from the Ile-de-France (Tuffreau-Libre 1992, 108) date to the 2nd-4th century AD. Similar triangular rims are also seen in the production from Gueugnon (Joly 1996, fig. 15, no. 10).

P(AV)11.2 (Fig. 78, 2), P(AV)11.3 (Fig. 86, 51), P(AV)11.4 (Fig. 92, 92), P(AV)11.5 (Fig. 86, 52)
Angled everted rim. Parallels with finds from the Lycée militaire (Alfonso 1999, fig. 185, 2, fig. 182, no. 3). Usually found in grey wares or coarse reduced fabrics (as at Autun; Alfonso 1999, 221), it occurs in 2nd-century AD contexts at the Lycée militaire but is not noted by Simon (2003) or Delor (2004) and is thus unlikely to be of 1st century AD date.

P(AV)12.1 (Fig. 86, 53)
Large open-mouthed storage jars with internal lip on rim. Storage jar forms with wide, open mouths usually in coarse fabrics. A variation of this form is found at Beuvray (form P18) in the La Tène D-Augustan period, although this form continues as late as the 2nd century AD (J. Simon, pers. comm.).

P(AV)12.2 (Fig. 91, 87)
Open-mouthed storage jar with sloping flattened rim in coarse fabrics. Similar vessels at Roanne (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997, pl. 61, no. 2) date to the 1st century AD. The fabric of the illustrated vessel would also imply a possibly early Roman date.

P(AV)13.1 (Fig. 86, 54)
Jar with right-angled everted rim and internal lip. Parallels from Roanne (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997, pl. 57, no. 6), date to the 1st century AD.

Open-mouthed jars and pitchers have a long time frame, dating from La Tène D2 throughout the Gallo-Roman period. Vessels with rounded rims are generally later than the 1st century AD, but closer refinement is hard.

P(AV)14.1 (Fig. 80, 19)
Square-rimmed jar. Probably of Late Roman date.

P(AV)14.2 (Fig. 87, 55)
Everted jars or pitchers. Cannot be refined any closer than Gallo-Roman.

P(AV)14.3 (Fig. 87, 56-57)
Open-mouthed jar, similar to those from Autun Lycée militaire (Chardron-Picault and Pernot 1999, fig. 180, 7) of 2nd and 3rd century AD date

P(AV)14.4 (Fig. 87, 58)
Open-mouthed jar or pitcher. Probably 2nd century AD on basis of parallels from Alésia (Sénéchal 1985).

P(AV)14.5 (Fig. 87, 59)
Everted flat-rimmed jars. Probably 2nd and 3rd century AD date.

P(AV)14.6 (Fig. 87, 60)
Everted, rounded rim of flagon or pitcher. This form is common through the Gallo-Roman period; parallels can be seen in 1st-century AD contexts at Roanne (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997).

P(AV)15 (Fig. 88, 61)
Large storage jars, Beuvray form P25a. The striking similarities with Beuvray examples indicate a date from the late 2nd century BC to the early 1st century AD for this form, although it may well continue later. Parallels are also known from the Sources de l'Yonne dating to the early 1st century AD (Péquinot et al. 1996, 221).

P(AV)16 (Fig. 80, 20; Fig. 88, 62)
Large storage jars or dolia. This form is found in Autun but not apparently at Mont Beuvray. Simon (2003, fig. 10, 1 and 4) suggests a date for this form in his Horizons 1 (AD 15-40) and 2 (AD 40-70). They do not appear to occur later than the 1st century AD.

Flagons (Cruches) Cr(AV))

CR(AV)1.1 (Fig. 89, 63-64); CR(AV)1.3 (Fig. 89, 65)
Narrow-necked flagons, usually found in orange fabrics, sometimes with grey reduced exterior surfaces. Simon (2003, 296) has provided a loose chronology for flagon types from Autun. The narrow necked flagon with undercut rim (Simon 2003, 296; no. 9) appears to be generally later, in Horizon 3-4 (AD 70-3rd century AD). Relatively close parallels (with a handle coming from close to the rim and slight undercut rim) can also be found from the Lycée militaire site (Alfonso 1999, fig. 179, no. 2 and 5) from contexts dated to the later 2nd-3rd century AD, with similar forms from Roanne also dating to the later 2nd century AD (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997, pl. 102, no. 11). A range of good parallels also exist from the new Hôpital d'Autun site (Delor 2004, 628), where a date for the form is suggested as between the second half of the 1st century AD and the end of the 2nd century AD. It appears therefore that this flagon form was produced locally, in Autun (Simon 2003; Delor 2004) and may have had a longer chronology at Autun than might be suggested elsewhere.

CR(AV)1.2 (Fig. 81, 21)
This rounded narrow-necked flagon can be paralleled by similar examples from the Lycée militaire site in Autun (Alfonso 1999, fig. 191), although the latter forms appear to have a higher handle attachment than the Arroux Valley example. The Lycée militaire examples apparently date to the later 2nd century AD. Elsewhere the form is far harder to parallel and less common than the group above.

CR(AV)1.4 (Fig. 89, 66)
Narrow-necked flagon with acute angled rim. 1st century AD.

CR(AV)1.5 (Fig. 89, 67)
Narrow-necked flagon with wide mouth. Parallels from the Lycée militaire date to the 2nd century AD (Alfonso 1999, fig. 179, no. 4).

CR(AV)2, CR(AV)2.1 (Fig. 89, 68), CR(AV)2.2 (Fig. 89, 69), CR(AV)2.3 (Fig. 89, 70), CR(AV)2.4 (Fig. 89, 71)
Wide-necked flagons. This broader group can be placed within Joly's typological group Co. Cl. Po4 (Joly and Mouton 2003, 269), with illustrated examples (Joly and Mouton 2003, fig. 28, 56; Joly 1996, fig. 9, no. 6). Joly notes that one production site for these types of large flagon was at Champallement, Nièvre, and the form can be placed within the later 2nd century AD. Specific types have closer parallels, for example CR(AV)2.3 (Fig. 89, 70) has affinities with a Roanne example (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997, pl. 105, no. 2) dating to the later 2nd century AD.

CR(AV)3.1 (Fig. 92, 93)
Straight-rimmed flagons. A wide, straight-necked flagon or pitcher with carinated straight rim. Somewhat similar forms are known from Roanne (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997, pl. 58, no. 18), but direct parallels are hard to find.

CR(AV) Bases
A number of relatively diagnostic flagon bases have been identified. Two bases (Fig. 89, 72-73) can be placed with forms which are thought to be later 1st-late 2nd century AD (Delor 2004), although the typology of these is not well defined.

Cooking pots (Marmites M(AV))

M(AV)1 (Fig. 92, 94)
Marmite with everted rim and lip. The form is unusual and difficult to parallel, although some broadly similar forms (with the everted lip) come from Roanne in later contexts, and the form can be placed broadly in the 1st-2nd century AD.

M(AV)2 (Fig. 90, 76)
Marmite with everted squared rim. Distinguished by a lip running below the rim. The form can be paralleled within the larger group of marmites seen at Autun in the late 1st-2nd century AD (Simon 2003, 302). The example (Fig. 90.76) is almost certainly 2nd century AD in date (J. Simon, pers. comm.).

M(AV)3, M(AV)3.1 (Fig. 92, 95), M(AV)3.2 (Fig. 90, 77), M(AV)3.3 (Fig. 90, 78-79)
Flat square-rimmed, inturned marmite. This group of squared angled marmites or jattes are placed by Simon within his Horizons 3 and 4, suggesting a late 1st-3rd century AD date. This form is common in Autun and noted from a number of sites including Leclerc (Simon 2003) and l'Hôpital d'Autun (Delor 2004). The large marmite with squared slight protruding rim (M(AV)3) can also be paralleled at Roanne (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997, pl. 59, no. 2) in later 1st-century AD contexts and at Bourbon-Lancy from the first half of the 2nd century AD (Joly 1990, fig. 80). It seems likely that M(AV)3 may be in the earlier range (later 1st-mid 2nd century AD).

M(AV)4.1 (Fig. 81, 23)
Marmite with squared protruding rim. Direct parallels can be found in Autun at the Leclerc site, which Simon (2003, 302) dates within Horizon 3 (AD 70-140).

M(AV)4.2 (Fig. 90, 80)
Marmite with squared protruding rim, more extended than 4.1 and with slight carination under rim. Exact parallels can be found in Autun at the Hôpital site (Delor 2004, 632) and the Leclerc site, which Simon (2003, 302) places in Horizon 4 (AD 140-3rd century AD).

Lids (Couvercles Cv(AV))

Cv(AV)1.1 (Fig. 81, 24), Cv(AV)2.1 (Fig. 78, 4, Fig. 91, 88), Cv(AV)3.1 (Fig. 92, 96)
Lids. Similar forms can be found at Roanne (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997, pl. 51, no. 6), at the Hôpital d'Autun (Delor 2004, fig. 2, no. 11) and the Lycée militaire (Alfonso 1999, fig. 180) dating to the 2nd/3rd century AD. Refining the date of these types is difficult and they are all broadly 1st-3rd century AD.

Bowls (Bols B(AV))

B(AV)1.1 (Fig. 90, 81)
Straight-sided bowl. Presumably Gallo-Roman, but no obvious parallels.

B(AV)2.1 (Fig. 92, 97)
Straight-sided bowl with overturned, inturned rim. This form is represented at Roanne (Genin and Lavendhomme 1997) and elsewhere in the 1st-2nd century AD (Delor 2004).

B(AV)2.2 (Fig. 79, 10)
Straight-sided jar or bowl with slightly beaded rim. Parallels for this form are hard to find. The closest appear to be early medieval (6th-9th century AD) in date, with similar examples from Yonne (e.g. Nouvel 2004, fig. 64), but the fabric could allow a late La Tène date, which is perhaps more likely in this case.

B(AV)3.1 (Fig. 78, 5)
Very abraded example of thick-walled bowl. No obvious parallels. Gallo-Roman.

B(AV)4.1 (Figs 78, 6; 79, 9)
Open bowl. Broad group, which can be dated no more closely than the Gallo-Roman period.

B(AV)5.1 (Fig. 81, 25), B(AV)5.2 (Fig. 90, 82)
Rounded rim, open bowl. No clear parallels.

Mortaria (MOR(AV))

MOR(AV)1.1 (Fig. 90, 83)
This form has somewhat similar parallels from the Leclerc site in Autun (Simon 2003, fig. 12) in Simon's Horizons 3 and 4 (dating from AD 70-3rd century AD). However, the lip on the Arroux Valley example is more pronounced and there do not appear to be any traces of orange or red, as seen on the Autun examples (although this may have disappeared). This example is also closely similar to examples from Beuvray (Mor 4) (early 1st century AD) indicating the longevity of such forms. Date probably in the 1st century AD.

MOR(AV)2.1 (Fig. 94, 100)
A simple lip rim. Parallels are difficult to find but the lack of parallels at Beuvray may suggest a later Roman date.


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