List of Figures

Figure 1: The three hills of the Sanganakallu-Kupgal complex. In the foreground is Hiregudda, taken from Area C, where quarrying of the upper reaches of the dolerite dyke was carried out, and looking down onto Area A, where stone tool manufacture was carried out. The hill being heavily quarried today for granite is Choudammagudda. Sannarachammagudda can be seen beyond it. The modern village of Sanganakallu is visible in the upper left, while the town of Bellary can be seen in the middle distance. (Photograph by J.A. Soldevilla).

Figure 2: Map of the Sanganakallu-Kupgal archaeological complex. The grey shading indicates the location of the dolerite dykes on Hiregudda, which total four in number. The quarried dyke runs from Area J in the south-east to Area B in the north-west.

Figure 3: Thin-sections of the gabbro from the Northern dyke and dolerite from the Southern dyke (axe quarry) of Hiregudda (Photographs by David Gómez-Gras). A) general view of the intergranular texture of the gabbro rock containing crystals of augite (green) and plagioclase (light) under plane polarized light (PPL), and B) under crossed polars (PPX). C (PPL) and D (PPX) images of the microcrystalline intergranular texture in dolerite rock. E (PPL) and F (PPX) enhanced images showing augite crystals (red, blue and orange colours) occupying the spaces between plagioclase laths (grey).

Figure 4: Stages in axe production (not to scale): 1. natural dolerite block, 2. initial flaking of lateral edges of the block, 3. flaked blank, 4. blank with slight pecking traces, 5. blank with more intensive pecking, 6. polished axe; photography by José Antonio Soldevilla).

Figure 5: Relation between length and weight of axe blanks, finished axes and finished axes with signs of use-wear from Hiregudda (Area A and J) and Sannarachammagudda (Trench 10). Lines mark the relation between length and weight and are therefore indicative of higher (1/1) or lower (1/4) technical competence.

Figure 6: Polishing hollows from Choudammagudda at an initial, middle and final stage of development (Photograph by J.A. Soldevilla).

Figure 7: Circular structure (Feature 1) in Hiregudda – Area A (Photograph by P. Whittaker).

Figure 8: Relative proportion (100%=1) of the main stone artefact categories in the three settlements of the Sanganakallu-Kupgal archaeological complex (axe blanks, hammerstones, polishing hollows are mainly related to axe production; handstones and grinding hollows are the main food-processing tools). These results are based on systematic surface recording of artefacts. Comparison with the material from test trenches shows a high correspondence between values.

Figure 9: Differences between Hiregudda (Area A) and Sannarachammagudda (Trench 10) in relation to the length and weight ratio of axe blanks. Lines mark the relation between length and weight and are therefore indicative of higher (left) or lower (right) technical competence.

Figure 10: Partial view of the area with polishing grooves located in the plain below Sanarachammagudda and next to the modern village of Sanganakallu (Photograph by J.A. Soldevilla).


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Last updated: Wed Jul 29 2009