List of Figures

Figure 1: Shell mounds on the Farasan Islands reaching 3m in height. The site in the foreground is 3m in height, and was excavated in 2013 (site number JW1807). For a satellite view of these sites see Figure 7 (Image credit: M. Meredith-Williams)

Figure 2: Sea-crossing distances for (a) Dahlak Islands (left), (b) Bab-al-Mandeb (centre) and (c) Farasan Islands (right). (Image credit: USGS 2014)

Figure 3: Shell midden sites of the southern Red Sea (sites marked by red dots)(Image credit: USGS 2014)

Figure 4: Distinctive spectral signature of shell mounds on Farasan Islands (Image credit: Google Earth 2014a)

Figure 5: Massawa (Eritrea) sites Google Earth image showing ambiguity of possible shell midden sites. Arrows mark possible sites with spectral signature of shell middens, note position of sites on palaeoshoreline, evident by the change in colour of sediment (Image credit: Google Earth 2014b).

Figure 6: False positive responses on the Farasan Islands. Black arrows mark geological features with the same spectral signatures as shell middens (Image credit: Google Earth 2014c)

Figure 7: Shadows cast by shell mounds. Top – mounds on Dahlak; bottom – mounds on Farasan (Image credit: Google Earth 2014d; 2014e)

Figure 8: Viewshed analysis of Dalhak Islands (left), Farasan Islands (right) (Image credit: USGS 2014)

Figure 9: Site JW2298 on Farasan Island. This site makes a useful case study; the top left image shows the stratigraphy, dominated by shell-fish to a depth of 2m (Image credit: Casey Beresford). The lower left image shows the proximity of the site to the palaeoshoreline, in this case expressed as a cliff (Image credit: Bernie Larsen). The top right image is a Google Earth image, where the excavation is visible in the centre of the image; the palaeoshoreline is also visible by the shadow it casts (Image credit: Google Earth 2014f). Lower right image of the site is taken from a drone (person top centre for scale) (Image credit: N. Hausmann).

Figure 10: Fischer's (1993) Fishing Site Model (land in green, additional shallow subtidal zone in yellow, deeper water blue), with examples from the Farasan Islands (sites marked in red, palaeoshorelines in black) (Image credit: Google Earth). Scales – figure A 400m, B, D, and E 300m, C and F 1000m.