List of Figures

Figure 1: Shell of common whelk, Buccinum undatum L. ap: aperture; bw: body-whorl; cn: siphonal canal; lp: lip of aperture; sp: spire. (Image credit: amended from Dautzenberg and Fischer 1912, pl. 4)

Figure 2: Types of bottom-fishing gear. (a): bottom-trawl of beam-type (b): dredge. (Image credit: after Nédélec and Prado 1990)

Figure 3: Location of the Isle of Wight, Carisbrooke Castle, and its Privy Garden.
(a): Britain and north-west France, showing location of Isle of Wight (b), England (E); Ireland (I); France (Fr); Scotland (S); Wales (W).
(b): Isle of Wight, showing location of Carisbrooke Castle (c.)
(c): Carisbrooke Castle with motte (m.) and Privy Gardens (p.g.)

Figure 4: Dimensions (in mm) measured on the intact whelks (B. undatum) in midden 7325 at Carisbrooke. H: shell height; Hap: aperture height; W: shell width; Wap: aperture width. (Image credit: after Thomas and Himmelman (1988).

Figure 5: Distribution of shell height in the whelks from midden 7325 (N: 48).

Figure 6: Variation of shell shape (height-width ratio, H/W) with shell size (shell height, H) in the whelks in midden 7325 (N: 36). Line: linear regression fitted by o.l.s.

Figure 7: Relationship, with the estimated width values, of the residuals (estimated value, minus true value) in estimating shell width with the allometric formula for shell width derived for the whelks in midden 7325 (a 'versus plot') (N: 36). Line: linear regression fitted by o.l.s.

Figure 8: Relationship of aperture shape (Hap/Wap) with size (shell height) in the whelks from midden 7325 (N: 36); aperture shape does not change with shell size (cf. Figure 6). Line: linear regression fitted by o.l.s.

Figure 9: Examples of types of damage observed in archaeological whelk shells from Carisbrooke midden 7325 (a, c, e, g) and analogous damage in whelks beam-trawled from regularly trawled North Sea whelk beds (b, d, f, h; modified from figs 1 and 4 of Mensink et al. 2000). (a),(b): slight damage (growth-check to lip); (c),(d): moderate damage; (e),(f): severe damage to back of body-whorl; (g),(h): detail of spire showing repaired moderate or severe damage. Scale bar: 10mm.

Figure 10: Examples of biological infestation of whelks from Carisbrooke midden 7325. (a): burrow of serpulid worm Polydora ciliata; (b): calcareous byssus from attachment of saddle-oyster Anomia ephippium; (c): linear pattern of surface perforations from the sponge Cliona; (d): lower valve of juvenile oyster Ostrea edulis ('spat'). Scale bar: 10mm.