As with any large and protracted archaeological project there are a great many organisations and individuals to acknowledge as having made a significant contribution to the project.
While those who have made a direct contribution to either the report or its appendices in terms of specialist analyses and studies have their authorship cited where appropriate, a great many more have given valuable comment, encouragement and support along the way. With a cast list of participants and contributors that runs into the hundreds, a definitive list is not possible here. However, those most key to the success of the project are given specific acknowledgement below.
This excavation could not have been undertaken without the co-operation and interest of the site's developer, Bovis Homes Ltd, who funded the investigation and assessment analysis of the 1993 phase of works and contributed significant resourcing for the 1994-5 phase in terms of the provision of plant machinery. In particular, Geoff Coleman, David Ivell and Andrew Chapman of Bovis Homes are thanked for their assistance throughout the fieldwork.
English Heritage (renamed Historic England in April 2015) provided grant funding for the 1994-5 fieldwork and for all subsequent post-excavation analysis and dissemination work that has been carried out over the last dozen years or so. The foresight and conviction of English Heritage in facilitating and supporting this major project is gratefully acknowledged. In particular, Drs Geoffrey Wainwright and Tim Williams are thanked for their championing of English Heritage's uptake of this project. Of equal importance has been the enduring support, guidance and encouragement of an array of EH officers who have been involved with the Elms Farm project over the last fifteen years, in particular Pete Wilson, Tony Wilmott, Rob Perrin, Alex Gibson, Fachtna MacAvoy and most recently Sarah May. In addition, the very significant role of the Inspector of Ancient Monuments for Essex, Debbie Priddy, throughout the whole lifespan of the project is appreciated.
Although the very large list of professional archaeologists employed on the project is too great to reproduce here, their contribution to the excavation, recording and understanding of the complex remains of the Late Iron Age and Roman settlement cannot be overstated. However, it is appropriate to identify the various excavation area supervisors upon whose record and initial interpretations much of this account of the origins, development and decline of the settlement is based; Barry Bishop, Tom Dawson, Trevor Ennis, Mark Hinman, Sarah Jones, Dave Kenny, Robert Masefield, Steve Preston and Vicki Ridgeway. Other principal field staff included Ros Tyrrell, Graham Kenlin, Lisa Wastling, Colin Wallace (finds), Nigel Macbeth (photography), Peter Boyer (environmental processing), Alex Thorne (planning), Dave Coombes, Frances Van Keulen, Andrew Lewsey and Toby Simpson (computing), Rob Wardill, Phil Heskett-Smith (handymen), Amanda Sutherland (conservation), Pat Connell and Kirsty Haywarth-Trevarthen (outreach) and Mandie Harley (administration).
The Essex County Council Archaeology Section as a whole provided guidance, advice and practical assistance, particularly Phil Clarke, Owen Bedwin, Patrick Allen, Hester Cooper-Reade and Nigel Brown. Julian Hill, on secondment from the Museum of London Archaeology Service (MoLAS), restructured the site narrative from excavation areas to one structured around the tangible land entities of the settlement. The pulling together of this volume into its final shape, editing and cross-checking was undertaken by Maria Medlycott.
Other noteworthy individuals and groups include the landowner Tim Pitt. The Maldon Archaeology and History Group provided invaluable practical support and local knowledge, particularly on Area W. Thanks are also due to the Essex and Suffolk Water Board for the use of Langford Pumping Station; Maldon District Council, especially Andrew White and Tony Plumridge, and Heybridge Parish Council. Mike Cuddeford, Dave Moule, Neil Fernley, Kim Sandwell are acknowledged for their metal-detecting expertise. James Lyall, Dominic Powlesland and Brian Alvey provided input on the development of the computer systems, and Mark Curteis resolved a last-minute problem with the coins. The illustrations are by David Williams, Iain Bell, Roger Massey-Ryan, Stuart MacNeil and Andrew Lewsey.
A number of people deserve recognition and thanks for their contribution to the pottery study in the form of identifications, advice, opinion, information and practical assistance; Kim Biddulph, Gillian Braithwaite, Holly Champion, Geoff Dannell, Brenda Dickinson, Jeremy Evans, Jane Faiers, Andrew Fitzpatrick, Helen Garrett, Pam Gilmour, Kevin Greene, Kay Hartley, Mark Hassall, Chris Lydamore, Malcolm Lyne, Jude Plouviez, Valery Rigby, Paul Sealey, the late Vivien Swan, Robin Symonds, Jane Timby, Paul Tyers, Colin Wallace, Peter Webster, David F. Williams and Steve Willis. Paul Sealey and Steve Willis, in particular, provided much helpful discussion, the former with regard to Middle and Late Iron Age coarse pottery, and the latter with regard to Gallo-Belgic ware and samian 'beyond dating'. The samian-wear photographs were taken by Jeff Hobson.
Stewart MacNeill initiated the task of illustrating the selected pottery pieces, until his untimely death in August 1999. The remainder, plus the preparation of drawings for publication, was completed by Iain Bell. Roger Massey-Ryan produced the Ceramic Phase maps.
Laurent Popovitch and Richard Reece are thanked for their assistance in identifying the coins, as are Andrew Burnett and Jonathan Williams from the British Museum's Dept of Coins and Medals for their generous assistance during the course of the project. Jude Plouviez and John Davies kindly allowed their records of coin finds from Suffolk and Norfolk, collected over many years, to be incorporated into this study and Peter Guest is most grateful for their generosity.
Cluny Johnstone and Umberto Albarella would like to thank Mark Atkinson and Steve Preston of Essex County Council Field Archaeology Unit for providing background archaeological information about the site and its excavation and for reading their report. Thanks are also due to Graham Norrie (University of Birmingham) for taking photographs and Emily Murray (University of Birmingham) for helping to sort out various logistic problems after the authors had left the Birmingham Zooarchaeology Laboratory. Simon Davis kindly allowed use of his unpublished system for the speciation of equid phalanges. The study of the animal bone assemblage was funded by English Heritage and was mostly undertaken when the authors were both employees of the University of Birmingham.
Richard Macphail wishes to thank English Heritage and Essex County Council for supporting his research. Mark Atkinson (ECCFAU) is thanked for his collaboration and support throughout the life of the project. Thin-section manufacture (University of Stirling), chemistry (Jöhan Linderholm, University of Umeå, Sweden), pH analysis (Harry Pratt, UCL) are gratefully acknowledged. Staff from ECCFAU are thanked for their collaboration.
The dendrochronological analysis was funded by English Heritage. Jennifer Hillam is also grateful to Mark Atkinson and Richard Darrah for information about the site and the timbers, and to Cathy Groves and Ian Tyers, who assessed the timbers in Essex and provided helpful comments about the timbers and th The analysis was funded by English Heritage. Thanks are also due to Mark Atkinson and Richard Darrah for information about the site and the timbers, and to Cathy Groves and Ian Tyers, who assessed the timbers in Essex and provided helpful comments about the timbers and the tree-ring results.
The interest and support of the hundreds of Maldon residents who attended the open days and site visits is acknowledged. Finally, and most importantly, the numerous excavators (professional, student and volunteer) and pot-washers who worked so hard under what were often difficult conditions, are thanked for their contribution.
Internet Archaeology is an open access journal based in the Department of Archaeology, University of York. Except where otherwise noted, content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY) Unported licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that attribution to the author(s), the title of the work, the Internet Archaeology journal and the relevant URL/DOI are given.
Internet Archaeology content is preserved for the long term with the Archaeology Data Service. Help sustain and support open access publication by donating to our Open Access Archaeology Fund.