|Mesolithic||Neolithic/Bronze Age||Early Iron Age-Middle Iron Age||Late Iron Age/Romano-British||Early Medieval||Mid-Medieval||Late Medieval||Post-medieval|
|Cwm Cilio||Woodland predominant – oak/hazel. Late Meso burning. ?clearance c. 5000 cal BC||EBA burning c. 1900–1750 cal BC. Soil micromorphological evidence of cultivation before field system established. First settlement nearby?||Predominantly grass and pasture with some woodland including alder, hazel, oak and birch. Scattered, open settlement||Woodland declines and increase in cultivation. Probable establishment of field system and nucleated settlement||Increasingly wet, grassland expanding. Recovery of woodland||Decline in woodland and increase in pasture. Some cultivation including hemp. Platform house settlement||Open, treeless landscape. Pasture with some cereals possible soil acidification. Possible decline in settlement|
|Braich y Gornel||Oak/hazel woodland maximum?||Some woodland locally. Burning clearance c. 1300–1000 cal BC followed by grassland, probably before establishment of field system||Grassland. Alder and hazel woodland declining. Associated with isolated roundhouse||Some cereal cultivation (barley). Associated with nucleated settlement?||Grassland increasing and further decline in woodland||Grassland increasing and further decline in woodland c. cal AD 1000–1100 cal BC||Sedges increasing from c. cal AD 1300 – Little Ice Age. Associated with rectangular hut?||Continued expansion of pasture but still some cereals|
|Fronhill, Muriau Gwyddelod||Brown earth soil developed under oak, hazel and alder woodland||Middle Neolithic clearance? Oak/hazel/alder woodland and grassland||?Boundary construction. Some cultivation of wheat and oats||Open landscape|
|Moel y Gerddi||More wooded prior to settlement construction||Wood land reduced. Plantago lanceolata shows human impact||Wood land declining||Wood land declining|
|Erw Wen||More wooded prior to settlement construction||As for MyG but more wooded|
|Moel y Gerddi upland valley mire||Fen with alder woodland increasing and later increase of birch and grasses||Early still much alder woodland. Then woodland, esp. alder and elm, declines sharply plus Mid Neo. first appearance of Plantago lanceolata||Woodland declining, grasses, heaths and Plantago lanceolata increasing suggesting much landscape impact||Some wood
/ Wood land declines
|Some woodland recovery||Heathland – Grasses, sedges and heathers dominant. Woodland declining||Heathland dominant||Heathland dominant|
|Cefn Graeanog||Woodland with possibly some local clearance||Burning with pollen evidence of decline in woodland in Middle bronze Age||c. 400–200 cal BC major woodland clearance, start of agriculture and first buildings on site||Late Iron Age abandonment of site with hazel and birch secondary woodland up to about AD 50. After which Cefn Grg II – major increase in land use and arable||Site abandonment and woodland regeneration. From about AD 700–900 renewed woodland decline||Increase in cereal activity including hemp cultivation||Reduction in arable cultivation. Increase in grassland including damp grassland locally||Renewed cereal and hemp cultivation followed by change to pastoral economy|
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