PREVIOUS   CONTENTS   SUMMARY   ISSUE   HOME 

Table 18: Early Fields: Summary timeline of environmental and land use evidence compared to that from other sites in the region
Mesolithic Neolithic/Bronze Age Early Iron Age-Middle Iron Age Late Iron Age/Romano-British Early Medieval Mid-Medieval Late Medieval Post-medieval
Cwm Cilio Woodland predominant – oak/hazel. Late Meso burning. ?clearance c. 5000 cal BC EBA burning c. 1900–1750 cal BC. Soil micromorphological evidence of cultivation before field system established. First settlement nearby? Predominantly grass and pasture with some woodland including alder, hazel, oak and birch. Scattered, open settlement Woodland declines and increase in cultivation. Probable establishment of field system and nucleated settlement Increasingly wet, grassland expanding. Recovery of woodland Decline in woodland and increase in pasture. Some cultivation including hemp. Platform house settlement Open, treeless landscape. Pasture with some cereals possible soil acidification. Possible decline in settlement
Braich y Gornel Oak/hazel woodland maximum? Some woodland locally. Burning clearance c. 1300–1000 cal BC followed by grassland, probably before establishment of field system Grassland. Alder and hazel woodland declining. Associated with isolated roundhouse Some cereal cultivation (barley). Associated with nucleated settlement? Grassland increasing and further decline in woodland Grassland increasing and further decline in woodland c. cal AD 1000–1100 cal BC Sedges increasing from c. cal AD 1300 – Little Ice Age. Associated with rectangular hut? Continued expansion of pasture but still some cereals
Fronhill, Muriau Gwyddelod Brown earth soil developed under oak, hazel and alder woodland Middle Neolithic clearance? Oak/hazel/alder woodland and grassland ?Boundary construction. Some cultivation of wheat and oats Open landscape
Moel y Gerddi More wooded prior to settlement construction Wood land reduced. Plantago lanceolata shows human impact Wood land declining Wood land declining
Erw Wen More wooded prior to settlement construction As for MyG but more wooded
Moel y Gerddi upland valley mire Fen with alder woodland increasing and later increase of birch and grasses Early still much alder woodland. Then woodland, esp. alder and elm, declines sharply plus Mid Neo. first appearance of Plantago lanceolata Woodland declining, grasses, heaths and Plantago lanceolata increasing suggesting much landscape impact Some wood land recovery
/ Wood land declines
Some woodland recovery Heathland – Grasses, sedges and heathers dominant. Woodland declining Heathland dominant Heathland dominant
Cefn Graeanog Woodland with possibly some local clearance Burning with pollen evidence of decline in woodland in Middle bronze Age c. 400–200 cal BC major woodland clearance, start of agriculture and first buildings on site Late Iron Age abandonment of site with hazel and birch secondary woodland up to about AD 50. After which Cefn Grg II – major increase in land use and arable Site abandonment and woodland regeneration. From about AD 700–900 renewed woodland decline Increase in cereal activity including hemp cultivation Reduction in arable cultivation. Increase in grassland including damp grassland locally Renewed cereal and hemp cultivation followed by change to pastoral economy

 PREVIOUS   CONTENTS   SUMMARY   ISSUE   HOME 

Internet Archaeology is an open access journal. Except where otherwise noted, content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY) Unported licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that attribution to the author(s), the title of the work, the Internet Archaeology journal and the relevant URL/DOI are given.

Terms and Conditions | Legal Statements | Privacy Policy | Cookies Policy | Citing IA

Internet Archaeology content is preserved for the long term with the Archaeology Data Service. Help sustain and support open access publication by donating to our Open Access Archaeology Fund.