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List of Figures and Tables

Table 1: The relation of roundhouse size to altitude

 

Figure 1: The distribution of all hillforts and defended enclosures in north-west Wales (Image: Gwynedd Archaeological Trust)

Figure 2: Foel Caethle, Meirionnydd, a small, possibly early hillfort (Image: Gwynedd Archaeological Trust)

Figure 3: Clogwyn Arllef, Meirionnydd, a small, possibly early hillfort (OS with annotations)

Figure 4: Castell Odo, Llŷn (Image: Gwynedd Archaeological Trust)

Figure 5: Meillionydd enclosure (Image: RCAHMW)

Figure 6: Meillionydd, Llŷn. Magnetometer survey (Image: Gwynedd Archaeological Trust).

Figure 7: Bryn Rhydd, Llŷn. Magnetometer survey (Image: Gwynedd Archaeological Trust).

Figure 8: Moel Goedog, Meirionnydd, Llŷn (after Bowen and Gresham 1967)

Figure 9: Castell y Gaer, Llangelynin, Meirionnydd (Image: Gwynedd Archaeological Trust)

Figure 10: Creigiau Gwineu, Rhiw, Llŷn (RCAHMW 1964)

Figure 11: Caer y Twr, Holyhead, Anglesey (Image: Gwynedd Archaeological Trust)

Figure 12: Garn Boduan, Nefyn, Llŷn (RCAHMW 1964)

Figure 13: Caer Euni, Meirionnydd (Image: Clwyd-Powys Archaeological Trust, 86-MB-107)

Figure 14: The distribution of all known defended enclosures compared to that of all known hut-circle settlements in north-west Wales

Figure 15: The distribution of all settlement types in relation to altitude

Figure 16: Examples of upland settlement plans: a Cwm Ffrydlas, Llanllechid, Gwynedd. b Ceunant y ddol, Garndolbenmaen, Gwynedd (Image: Gwynedd Archaeological Trust after RCAHMW 1960)

Figure 17: Examples of concentric and other enclosed and nucleated settlement plans (Image: Gwynedd Archaeological Trust). Concentric: a)Mellteyrn Uchaf, Llyn, b)Moel y Gerddi, Meirionnydd; Rectilinear enclosed: c)Din Lligwy, Anglesey, d)Hafoty Wernlas, Gwynedd; Curvilinear enclosed: e)Ffridd Ddu, Meironnydd, f)Pant y Saer, Anglesey; Nucleated: g)Cae Ddu, Meirionnydd, h)Cwm Dyli, Gwynedd.

Figure 18: Probable two phase settlement at Muriau Gwyddelod, Harlech, Meirionnydd (after Bowen and Gresham 1967)

Figure 19: Probable two phase settlement at Fridd Ddu, Trawsfynydd, Meirionnydd (Image: Crown Copyright RCAHMW 91-cs-170)

Figure 20: Relict landscape of fields and associated settlements, Llanllechid, Gwynedd (after RCAHMW 1956)

Figure 21: Fields and associated settlement below Pen-y-gaer hillfort, Llŷn (RCAHMW 1960)

Figure 22: Fields and associated settlement below Pen-y-gaer hillfort, Llŷn (Image: Crown Copyright RCAHMW AP-2007-0240)

Figure 23: Comparison of areas of different types of fields/enclosures: a. Areas of terraced and curvilinear fields/enclosures. b. Areas of fields/enclosures associated with hillforts

Figure 24: Examples of upland curvilinear field systems: a. Ceunant y ddol, Garndolbenmaen, Gwynedd, b. Pant yr Griafolen, Rowen, Conwy (RCAHMW 1956 and 1960)

Figure 25: Garn Fadryn hillfort, Llŷn, showing internal enclosures/yards (RCAHMW 1964)

Figure 26: Tre'r Ceiri hillfort, Llŷn. Detail of enclosures on western slope (RCAHMW 1964)

Figure 27: The occurrence of field types, a. compared to settlement type, b. compared to altitude

Figure 28: Garn Bentyrch, Llŷn. Aerial photograph showing three phases of construction (Image: Gwynedd Archaeological Trust)

Figure 29: Caer Seion, Conwy, showing two phases of construction (RCAHMW 1956)

Figure 30: The distribution of forts and other defended settlements on Anglesey compared to the probable boundaries of medieval administrative areas (commotes)

The Lost Hillfort — Braich Y Dinas, Penmaenmawr, Conwy

Figure A: Braich y Dinas, Conwy. 18th century. Anon.

Figure B: Braich y Dinas, Conwy, 1877 (Archaeologia Cambrensis)

Figure C: Braich y Dinas hill, Conwy, looking west, before quarrying, 1910 (postcard)

Figure D: Braich y Dinas, Conwy. Looking west. After quarrying. 2018 (Image: Gwynedd Archaeological Trust).

Tre'r Ceiri: An Exceptional Walled Fort

Figure E: Tre'r Ceiri hillfort. Artist's reconstruction, viewed from the north-west (A. Smith, GAT)

Figure F: Tre'r Ceiri hillfort. Artist's reconstruction of the main north gate approach corridor (A. Smith, GAT)

Figure G: Tre'r Ceiri hillfort. North postern gate, from the outside, showing broken lintel, before conservation (Image: Gwynedd Archaeological Trust)

Figure H: Tre'r Ceiri hillfort. Conservation in progress on the main fort wall (Image: Gwynedd Archaeological Trust)

Figure I not used

Castell Odo, an Early Defensive Ringwork on the Llŷn Peninsula

Figure J: Castell Odo. Stylised plan showing the phases of occupation. 1. Castell Odo plan, Phase 1: The open and palisaded settlement 2. Castell Odo plan, Phase 2: The single embanked fort 3. Castell Odo plan, Phase 3: The double embanked fort 4. Castell Odo plan, Phase 4: The later open settlement

Figure K: Castell Odo. Pottery from the first settlement phase (Alcock 1960)

Bryn y Castell, Ffestiniog, Meirionnydd — An Excavated Hillfort Producing Iron

Figure L: Bryn y Castell, summary plan showing slag spreads and furnace locations (P. Crew)

Figure M: Bryn y Castell from the air, showing the fort reconstructed after excavation (C. R. Musson)

Figure N: Bryn y Castell, the snail-shaped hut

Figure O not used

Figure P: The remains of a typical late prehistoric iron-smelting furnace (from Crawcwellt, Meirionnydd)


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