Plate 28: *Sima de las Palomas: permanent incisor tooth CG-29. Scale in 1cm divisions (Photo M.J.Walker)*

A right maxillary permanent medial incisor with a well-developed cingulum, CG-27, shows a lingually shovel-shaped crown, and had lost minute chips from its occlusal incisive edge.

Element | in mm | ||
---|---|---|---|

VL | MW | average | |

mesiodistal crown dimension | 8.9 | 8.9 | 8.9 |

buccolingual crown dimension | 9.4 | 9.4 | 9.4 |

mesiodistal dimension at the neck | 6.2 | 6.2 | 6.2 |

buccolingual dimension at the neck | 7.8 | 7.8 | 7.8 |

maximal mesiodistal dimension of the root | 5.6 | 5.6 | 5.6 |

maximal buccolingual dimension of the root | 7.8 | 7.8 | 7.8 |

buccal crown height (circumferential height) | 12.1 | 12.4 | 12.25 |

buccal height of the root (circumferential height) | 17.0 | 17.0 | 17.0 |

incisoapical height(vertical projection) | 27.6 | 27.6 | 27.6 |

The buccolingual crown dimension (Table 10) surpasses most Neanderthals except for Teik-Tash and some Krapina teeth, at the neck attaining a size normally seen only in archaic teeth. It came from mine rubble on the hillside. A juvenile or adolescent left maxillary permanent medial incisor, CG-29 (see Plate 28 and Table 11), showing an incompletely formed root and lingually shovel-shaped crown, was excavated in the upper cutting (layer 2k).

Element | in mm |
---|---|

mesiodistal crown dimension | 9.2 |

buccolingual crown dimension | 7.9 |

mesiodistal dimension at the neck | 6.2 |

buccolingual dimension at the neck | 7.3 |

maximal mesiodistal dimension of the root | 4.5 |

maximal buccolingual dimension of the root | 5.4 |

buccal crown height (circumferential height) | 12.2 |

buccal height of the root (circumferential height) | 12.8 * |

incisoapical height (vertical projection) | 24.4 * |

* Root incompletely formed

A right maxillary permanent lateral incisor, CG-37, has minor attrition of crown enamel, with a moderately shovel-shaped lingual aspect, and an intact root. It was excavated in the upper cutting extension in layer Ib. Its high buccolingual neck dimension (Table 12) is characteristically Neanderthal.

Element | in mm | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

VL | MW | FS | average | |

mesiodistal crown dimension | 7.7 | 7.7 | 7.7 | 7.7 |

buccolingual crown dimension | 7.7 | 7.7 | 7.7 | 7.7 |

mesiodistal dimension at the neck | 5.9 | 5.5 | 5.4 | 5.6 |

buccolingual dimension at the neck | 7.1 | 7.7 | 7.2 | 7.5 |

maximal mesiodistal dimension of the root | 4.3 | 4.2 | 4.4 | 4.3 |

maximal buccolingual dimension of the root | 7.1 | 7.2 | 7.0 | 7.15 |

buccal crown height (circumferential height) | 10.4 | - | - | - |

buccal root height (circumferential height) | 15.0 | - | - | - |

buccal crown height (vertical projection) | - | 9.4 | 10.0 | 9.7 |

buccal height of the root (vertical projection) | - | 14.0 | 13.5 | 13.75 |

incisoapical height (vertical projection) | 23.4 | 23.4 | 23.5 | 23.3 |

A probably left maxillary permanent lateral incisor - its long root (Table 13) might signal a canine - with a crown showing little attrition, CG-39, was excavated in the upper cutting extension high up in layer Ib.

Element | in mm | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

VL | MW | FS | average | |

mesiodistal crown dimension | 6.9 | 6.9 | 6.95 | 6.9 |

buccolingual crown dimension | 7.0 | 7.1 | 7.1 | 7.1 |

mesiodistal dimension at the neck | 4.9 | 5.0 | 5.2 | 5.05 |

buccolingual dimension at the neck | 7.1 | 7.4 | 7.4 | 7.3 |

maximal mesiodistal dimension of the root | 3.4 | 3.7 | 3.65 | 3.6 |

maximal buccolingual dimension of the root | 6.3 | 6.6 | 6.6 | 6.5 |

buccal crown height (circumferential height) | 8.5 | - | - | - |

buccal height of the root (circumferential height) | 20.8 | - | - | - |

buccal crown height (vertical projection) | - | 8.35 | 8.35 | 8.35 |

buccal height of the root (vertical projection) | - | 20.35 | 20.35 | 20.35 |

incisoapical height (vertical projection) | 28.8 | 28.8 | 28.7 | 28.8 |

A right mandibular juvenile or adolescent medial permanent incisor, CG-47 (Table 14), with an incompletely formed root and no attrition of the crown, was excavated in the upper cutting extension in layer Ib.

Element | in mm | ||
---|---|---|---|

VL | MW | average | |

mesiodistal crown dimension | 7.9 | 6.9 | 7.4 |

buccolingual crown dimension | 9.4 | 9.7 | 9.55 |

mesiodistal dimension at the neck | 5.4 | 5.3 | 5.35 |

buccolingual dimension at the neck | 7.9 | 7.9 | 7.9 |

maximal mesiodistal dimension of the root | 4.3 | 4.5 | 4.4 |

maximal buccolingual dimension of the root | - | - | - |

buccal crown height (circumferential height) | 9.0 | - | - |

buccal height of the root (circumferential height) | 13.8 * | - | - |

buccal crown height (vertical projection) | - | 9.2 | - |

buccal height of the root (vertical projection) | - | 13.5 * | - |

incisoapical height (vertical projection) | 22.0 * | 22.2 * | 22.1 * |

*Root incompletely formed

A probably right, mandibular medial permanent incisor, CG-40 (Table 15), with an incompletely formed root like that in modern 6 year-olds, was excavated in the upper cutting extension in layer Ia.

Element | in mm |
---|---|

mesiodistal crown dimension | 5.4 |

buccolingual crown dimension | 5.9 |

mesiodistal dimension at the neck | 4.0 |

buccolingual dimension at the neck | 4.8 |

maximal mesiodistal dimension of the root | 3.3 |

maximal buccolingual dimension of the root | 6.2 |

buccal crown height (vertical projection) | 9.1 |

buccal height of the root (vertical projection) | 9.4 * |

incisoapical height (vertical projection) | 18.5 * |

* Root incompletely formed#

A left mandibular lateral permanent incisor, CG-23 (Table 16), with lingually shovel-shaped crown showing attrition of enamel on its occlusal incisive edge, was excavated in the upper cutting in layer 2.

Element | in mm |
---|---|

mesiodistal crown dimension | 5.6 |

buccolingual crown dimension | 7.0 |

mesiodistal dimension at the neck | 4.0 |

buccolingual dimension at the neck | 7.1 |

maximal mesiodistal dimension of the root | 3.7 |

maximal buccolingual dimension of the root | 7.7 |

buccal crown height (circumferential height) | 7.3 |

buccal height of the root (circumferential height) | 13.8 * |

incisoapical height (vertical projection) | 26.7 * |

* Root may have deficit of up to 2mm

A right maxillary permanent canine, with no attrition of crown enamel, CG-22 (Table 17), was excavated from the upper cutting in layer 2d.

Element | in mm |
---|---|

mesiodistal crown dimension | 7.9 |

buccolingual crown dimension | 8.5 |

mesiodistal dimension at the neck | 5.6 |

buccolingual dimension at the neck | 8.7 |

maximal mesiodistal dimension of the root | 4.4 |

maximal buccolingual dimension of the root | 9.1 |

buccal crown height (circumferential height) | 9.4 |

buccal height of the root (circumferential height) | 17.3 |

incisoapical height (vertical projection) | 26.7 |

A probable right, mandibular juvenile permanent canine, CG-30, with maybe 10mm of its root unformed, but with characteristically Neanderthal dimensions (Table 18), was excavated in the upper cutting in layer 2f.

Element | in mm |
---|---|

mesiodistal crown dimension | 7.8 |

buccolingual crown dimension | 8.2 |

mesiodistal dimension at the neck | 5.6 |

buccolingual dimension at the neck | 8.0 |

maximal mesiodistal dimension of the root | 5.0 |

maximal buccolingual dimension of the root | 8.0 |

buccal crown height (circumferential height) | 12.2 |

buccal height of the root (circumferential height) | 13.0 * |

incisoapical height (vertical projection) | 24.0 * |

* Root incompletely formed

A left maxillary canine, CG-26 (Table 19), with trivial attrition of occlusal enamel, was excavated in the upper cutting extension in layer Ia.

Element | in mm |
---|---|

mesiodistal crown dimension | 8.0 |

buccolingual crown dimension | 8.5 |

mesiodistal dimension at the neck | 5.8 |

buccolingual dimension at the neck | 8.0 |

maximal mesiodistal dimension of the root | 4.5 |

maximal buccolingual dimension of the root | 7.0 |

buccal crown height (circumferential height) | 9.8 |

incisoapical height (vertical projection) | 29. 0 |

CG-41 looks like an right mandibular anterior premolar (more than a left maxillary canine or medial incisor); it has a single root and a crown that lost so much enamel from attrition that dentine is exposed all across it. Uncertainty over its attribution affects its orientation for measurement; premolar orientation gives Table 20 values (if it were an incisor, its mesiodistal dimension falls to 10.0mm, other values staying unchanged). A big horizontal groove traverses its interproximal surface (maybe due to tooth-picks). CG-41 was excavated in the upper cutting extension high in layer Ib.

Element | in mm | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

VL | MW | FS | average | |

mesiodistal crown dimension | 10.4 | 9.1 | 9.1 | 9.5 |

buccolingual crown dimension | 9.4 | 9.3 | 9.35 | 9.35 |

mesiodistal dimension at the neck | 8.5 | 7.6 | 7.5 | 7.8 |

buccolingual dimension at the neck | 8.5 | 8.3 | 8.3 | 8.4 |

maximal mesiodistal dimension of the root | 8.5 | 6.6 | 7.4 | 7.5 |

maximal buccolingual dimension of the root | 7.5 | 7.5 | 7.5 | 7.5 |

buccal crown height (circumferential height) | 7.2 | - | - | - |

buccal height of the root (circumferential height) | 19.7 | - | - | - |

buccal crown height (vertical projection) | - | 7.25 | 7.15 | 7.2 |

buccal height of the root (vertical projection) | - | 20.0 | 19.3 | 19.65 |

incisoapical height (vertical projection) | 27.0 | 27.0 | 26.25 | 27.00 |

A right mandibular anterior premolar (unnumbered; Table 21) with 3 lingual cusps (occasionally seen in modern premolars) was excavated in the upper cutting extension in unit 2d.

Element | in mm |
---|---|

mesiodistal crown dimension | 8.0 |

buccolingual crown dimension | 9.4 |

mesiodistal dimension at the neck | 6.7 |

buccolingual dimension at the neck | 8.4 |

maximal mesiodistal dimension of the root | 4.5 |

maximal buccolingual dimension of the root | 7.2 |

buccal crown height | 8.2 |

A probably mandibular middle molar of characteristically Neanderthal dimensions, CG-33 (Table 22), with moderate attrition of enamel and coronal exposure of dentine, was excavated in the upper cutting in layer 2h.

Element | in mm | ||
---|---|---|---|

VL | MW | average | |

mesiodistal crown dimension | 12.0 | 12.0 | 12.0 |

buccolingual crown dimension | 10.9 | 10.9 | 10.9 |

mesiodistal dimension at the neck | 9.5 | 9.5 | 9.5 |

buccolingual dimension at the neck | 9.5 | 9.5 | 9.5 |

maximal mesiodistal dimension of the root | 7.9 | 7.3 | 7.6 |

maximal buccolingual dimension of the root | 7.4 | 7.4 | 7.4 |

buccal crown height (circumferential height) | 7.0 | - | - |

buccal height of the root (circumferential height) | 14.4 | - | - |

buccal crown height (vertical projection) | - | 7.3 | - |

buccal height of the root (vertical projection) | - | 14.0 | - |

incisoapical height (vertical projection) | 21.0 | 21.3 | 21.25 |

A maxillary wisdom tooth in its alveolus, CG-43, with a large mesiobuccal cusp, was excavated in the upper cutting extension in layer I; the only measurements possible are mesiodistal and buccolingual crown dimensions of 9.4mm and 10.3mm, respectively. A permanent mandibular second or third molar fragment, CG-36, with severe crown attrition, was excavated in the upper cutting high in layer Ib; its crown height is approximately 5.7mm and incisoapical height about 18.3mm.

Element | in mm |
---|---|

mesiodistal crown dimension | 12.9 |

buccolingual crown dimension | 11.3 |

buccal crown height | 7.0 |

maximal crown height | 9.5 |

CG-38 is a child's maxillary second or third permanent molar crown with no root yet formed (Table 23); it was excavated in the upper cutting in layer Ia. CG-42 is an infant's tooth germ of a permanent molar crown (Table 24).

Element | in mm |
---|---|

mesiodistal crown dimension | 8.6 |

buccolingual crown dimension | 6.6 |

crown height | 5.3 |

© Internet Archaeology
URL: http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue5/walker/4.2.1.html

Last updated: Wed Dec 23 1998