Mini journal logo  Home Issue Contents All Issues

How Quickly Should Public Benefit Come From Archaeology? Availability, use and influence on society: results of the Estonian salvage and metal detector study

Ulla Kadakas

Cite this as: Kadakas, U. 2021 How Quickly Should Public Benefit Come From Archaeology? Availability, use and influence on society: results of the Estonian salvage and metal detector study, Internet Archaeology 57. https://doi.org/10.11141/ia.57.15

Summary

A supposed fireplace from 10th-17th century in a settlement site of Viira on the island of Muhu. The stratigraphy of the soil layers cannot be understood without archaeological knowledge. Photo: Rivo Bernotas
A supposed fireplace from 10th-17th century in a settlement site of Viira on the island of Muhu. The stratigraphy of the soil layers cannot be understood without archaeological knowledge. Photo: Rivo Bernotas

This paper explores the idea of excavation being only the first stage in communicating the benefit of archaeology to the public. The role of museums, social media and scientific publication are all important, as are the support from private developers and the personal role of the archaeologists themselves. The use of social media can be positive but this paper also details problems with metal detectorists groups, some of which are not acting responsibly.

  • Google Scholar
  • Keywords: Estonia, social media, metal detecting, professionalisation, museums, public understanding
  • Accepted: 6 Jan 2021. Published: 17 Mar 2021
  • Funding: The publication of this article is funded by the European Archaeological Council.
  • PDF download (main article text only)

Corresponding author: Ulla Kadakas
ulla.kadakas@muinsuskaitseamet.ee
National Heritage Board, Estonia

Full text

Figure 1a/Figure 1b: Frames from the animation 'Välek Vibulane' (Tallinnfilm 1980). The stone axes with a bored hole depicted on the first frame were used in the territory of Estonia as part of the Battle Axe and Corded Ware culture (Johanson 2006, 100–1) about 3000 BC (Kriiska 2000, 75). The other frame shows pots decorated with comb impressions and pits and dimples; these pots had conical (not flat) bottom in Estonia. The first vessels with a flat bottom came with Corded Ware, but their ornamentation is dominated by cord impressions, notches and grooves (Kriiska 2000, 64–70)

Figure 2: Division of types of archaeological heritage studied in 2019. Source: National Heritage Board, Estonia

Figure 3: A supposed fireplace from 10th-17th century in a settlement site of Viira on the island of Muhu. The stratigraphy of the soil layers cannot be understood without archaeological knowledge. Photo: Rivo Bernotas.

Chalmers, A.F. 1998 Mis asi see on, mida nimetatakse teaduseks? Arutlus teaduse olemusest ja seisundist ning teaduslikest meetoditest. Tõlkinud K. Sarv. Tartu: Ilmamaa. (What Is This Thing Called Science? 1976).

Council of Europe 1992 European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage (Revised), Valletta, 16 January 1992. Council of Europe Treaty Series 143. https://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/rms/090000168007bd25

Council of Europe 2005 Council of Europe Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society. European Treaty Series 199 https://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/rms/0900001680083746

DISCO 2014 'Ulst, Ingrid; Kobrusepp, Viire; Kangert, Nele; Pavlov, Doris; Mäesalu, Ain'. Discovering the Archaeologists of Estonia 2012-14. Discovering the Archaeologists of Europe. National Report Estonia. Tartu: MTÜ Archeopolis, http://e-archaeology.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/EE-DISCO-2014-Estonia-national-report-english-final.pdf

HCA 2019 Heritage Conservation Act (1.05.2019). Riigi Teataja I, 19.03.2019, 13, https://www.riigiteataja.ee/en/eli/504062019001/consolide

Johanson, K. 2006 'The contribution of stray finds for studying everyday practices – the example of stone axes', Estonian Journal of Archaeology 10(2), 99–131.

Kadakas, U. 2017 'Defining archaeological heritage: the practices of protection of archaeological heritage in Estonia' in Ann Degraeve (ed) Dare to Choose. Making Choices in Archaeological Heritage Management. EAC Occasional Paper 13, Budapest: Archaeolingua. 41–45. https://www.europae-archaeologiae-consilium.org/eac-occasional-papers

Kadakas, U. and Lillak, A. 2019 'Managing the managers: State control over monuments in Estonia' in Chris Corlett (ed) Archaeological Sites and Monuments in the Care of State. Sharing Our Experiences, Proceedings of the International Conference Dublin, Republic of Ireland, 28 Feb. EAC Occasional Paper 15. Budapest: Archaeolingua. 51–56. Also Internet Archaeology 54. https://doi.org/10.11141/ia.54.4

KMR Kultuurimälestiste register (Register of Cultural Monuments) https://register.muinas.ee/

Kretova, K. 2018 Noor aardekütt tekitas hindamatut kahju. Saarte Hääl, 21. III https://saartehaal.postimees.ee/6667895/noor-aardekutt-tekitas-hindamatut-kahju

Kriiska, A. 2000 'Corded Ware culture sites in North-Eastern Estonia. Valter Lang, Aivar Kriiska (toim). De temporibus antiquissimis ad honorem Lembit Jaanits', Muinasaja Teadus/Research into Ancient Times 8, Tallinn: Ajaloo Instituut. 59–79.

Pärnamägi, I. 2014 Saksa mõju Eesti õiguses,. Õiguskeel 1 https://www.just.ee/sites/www.just.ee/files/illimar_parnamagi._saksa_moju_eesti_oiguses.pdf

Russow, E., Kadakas, U., Haak, A. and Rammo, R. 2019 'Archaeological Fieldwork in 2018' in E. Russow and A. Haak (eds) Archaeological Fieldwork in Estonia 2018, Tallinn. 9–38.

Sacco, L.P. 2018 Culture 3.0: Building competitiveness and innovative capacity through culture: A vision for European (digital) cultural heritage 2025. Varna 28 & 29 May 2018. –Presentations & Public Speaking, 6. IV https://www.slideshare.net/Europeana/culture-30-building-competitiveness-and-innovative-capacity-through-culture-by-pier-luigi-sacco-a-vision-for-european-digital-cultural-heritage-2025-varna-28-29-may-2018

Siimets-Gross, H. 2002 Asja mõiste ja liigitus klassikalise ajastu Rooma õiguse Gaiuse institutsioonide näitel. Magistritöö. Tartu Ülikool. https://dspace.ut.ee/bitstream/handle/10062/586/siimetshesi.pdf?sequence=5&isAllowed=y

Varul, P., Kull, I., Kõve, V., Käerdi, M. and Puri, T. 2014 Asjaõigusseadus I (§-d 1-167). Asjaõigusseadus I kommenteeritud väljaanne, Tallinn: Juura, Õigusteabe AS. 416−94.

Internet Archaeology is an open access journal based in the Department of Archaeology, University of York. Except where otherwise noted, content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY) Unported licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that attribution to the author(s), the title of the work, the Internet Archaeology journal and the relevant URL/DOI are given.

Terms and Conditions | Legal Statements | Privacy Policy | Cookies Policy | Citing IA

Internet Archaeology content is preserved for the long term with the Archaeology Data Service. Help sustain and support open access publication by donating to our Open Access Archaeology Fund.