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Archaeological Excavations on the SCPX Pipeline, Azerbaijan 2013-2018Open Data

David Maynard, Qoşqar Qoşqarli, Nəcəf Müseybli, Şamil Nəcəfov, Vaqif Əsədov, Anar Agalarzadə, Dmitriy Kiriçenko and Müzəffər Hüseynov

Cite this as: Maynard, D., Qoşqarli, Q., Müseybli, N., Nəcəfov, Ş, Əsədov, V. Agalarzadə, A., Kiriçenko, D. and Hüseynov, M. 2022 Archaeological Excavations on the SCPX Pipeline, Azerbaijan 2013-2018, Internet Archaeology 59. https://doi.org/10.11141/ia.59.11

Summary

Figure 1
Map of sites mentioned in the text

The SCPX pipeline, completed in 2018, follows the line of the earlier BTC and SCP pipelines across Azerbaijan towards Georgia. The project included an archaeological programme that supplemented the discoveries of the earlier two projects. The results were very similar, but were significantly different from the earlier work.

The SCPX work was carried out on 48 locations using a team of national and international archaeologists. Chalcolithic material was again found at Poylu, Xocaxan and Aılı Dərə. The Kura Araz culture of the early Bronze Age was indicated with burials at Soyuqbulaq and Tovuzçay. The Xocalı-Gədəbəy culture of the late Bronze Age early Iron Age is well represented with a cemetery found at Tovuzçay II and the kurgans at Borsunlu Camp. Antique period jar grave cemeteries were found in the Yevlax area at Əmirarx, Bəyimsarov, Səmədabad and Yaldili. Medieval settlement sites were excavated at Əmirarx, Faxrali, Lək and Hacialili. The major discovery of the project was the medieval castle at Kərpiclitəpə. This was a rectangular structure with towers at each corner and evidence of occupation that probably ended with the Mongol invasion.

The report is structured as an introduction to the project, with a brief summary of excavations. The detail for each site can be accessed in the report by links to the archive on the ADS website in a similar form to the BTC/SCP project report. The reader can thus access all the information for each site together with detailed analysis of radiocarbon and other analyses of the sites for all the work in that area from the various projects. Taken as a whole, the work on the three projects provides a means to comprehend part of the very broad early history of northwest Azerbaijan.

Xülasə

2018-ci ildə tamamlanmış CQBKG boru kəməri əvvəlki BTC və CQBK boru kəmərlərinin marşrutu ilə Azərbaycan ərazisindən Gürcüstana doru uzanır. Layihə çərçivəsində əvvəlki iki layihənin tapıntılarını tamamlayan arxeoloji proqram həyata keçirilib. Nəticələr çox oxşar, lakin əvvəlki işlərdən əhəmiyyətli dərəcədə fərqli olub.

CQBKG ilə əlaqədar işlər yerli və xarici arxeoloqlardan ibarət komandanın iştirakı ilə 48 yerdə aparılıb. Poylu, Xocaxan və Aılı Dərədə yenidən xalkolit (eneolit) dövrünə aid material aşkar edilib. Erkən Tunc dövrünə aid Kür-Araz mədəniyyəti barədə məlumat Soyuqbulaq və Tovuzçayda aparılmış arxeoloji qazıntilar zamanı tapılmış məzarlıqlarda yer almışdır. Son Tunc dövrü, erkən Dəmir dövrünün Xocalı-Gədəbəy mədəniyyəti barədə məlumatlar II Tovuzçayda tapılmış qəbiristanlıq və Borsunlu düşərgəsindəki kurqanlarlda yaxşıca öz əksini tapıb. Yevlax ərazisində Əmirarx, Bəyimsarov, Səmədabad və Yaldilidə antik dövrə aid küp qəbiristanlıqları aşkar edilib. Əmirarx, Faxralı, Lək və Hacıalılıda orta əsr yaşayış məskənlərində qazıntı işləri aparılıb. Layihə çərçivəsində əsas arxeoloji tapıntı orta əsrlərə aid Kərpiclitəpədə aşkar olunmuş qaladır. Bu, düzbucaqlı bir quruluşa malik, hər küncündə qüllələri olan, çox güman ki, monqol istilası zamanı daıdılan yaşayış məntəqəsinin qalıqlarıdır.

Bu hesabat qazıntıların qısa xülasəsi verilməklə layihəyə giriş kimi tərtib edilib. Hesabatda hər bir abidəyə aid ətraflı məlumatı BTC/CQBK layihəsinin hesabatına oxşar formada ADS veb-saytındakı arxivə keçidlər vasitəsilə əldə etmək olar.

Beləliklə, oxucu müxtəlif layihələr çərçivəsində bu ərazidə aparılmış arxeoloji qazıntilarla əlaqədar ətraflı radiokarbon analizləri və digər tədqiqat işləri ilə birlikdə hər bir abidəyə aid bütün məlumatları əldə edə bilər. Ümumilikdə, üç layihə çərçivəsində aparılmış işlər Azərbaycanın şimal-qərbinin çox geniş əhatəli erkən tarixinin bir hissəsini araşdırmaq imkanı verir.

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  • Keywords: Azerbaijan, excavation, Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Antique period, Albanian period, Medieval, Post-medieval, specialist reports, radiocarbon, cemetery, ceramics, digital archive
  • Accepted: 14 Oct 2022. Published: 14 Dec 2022
  • Funding: The publication of this article was funded by BP Exploration (Shah Deniz) Ltd.
  • PDF download (main article text only)
  • Related digital archive: Müseybli, N., Əsədov, V., Maynard, D., Kiriçenko, D., Aliyev, J., Stone, D., Qoşqarli, Q., Nəcəfov, Ş., Agalarzadə, A. and Hüseynov, M. 2022 Archaeological Excavations on the South Caucasus Pipeline Expansion Gas Pipeline, Azerbaijan 2013-2018 [data-set]. York: Archaeology Data Service [distributor] https://doi.org/10.5284/1101054
  • Related publication: Taylor, P.M. and Maynard, D. 2011 Archaeological Excavations on the BTC Pipeline, Azerbaijan, Internet Archaeology 29. https://doi.org/10.11141/ia.29.1

Corresponding author: David MaynardORCID logo
dave.maynard10@gmail.com
Landsker Archaeology Ltd

Co-authors: Qoşqar Qoşqarli
Nəcəf MüseybliORCID logo
Şamil NəcəfovORCID logo
Vaqif Əsədov
Anar AgalarzadəORCID logo
Dmitriy KiriçenkoORCID logo
Müzəffər Hüseynov
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Archaeology and Ethnography Institute

Full text

Figure 1: BTC/SCP (red) and SCPX (blue) projects, archaeological sites on pipeline route. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 2: Əmirarx Antique cemetery site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 3: Əmirarx medieval settlement site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 4: Bəyimsarov Antique cemetery site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 5: Səmədabad I Antique cemetery site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 6: Səmədabad 2 Antique cemetery site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 7: Səmədabad II Grave 11 female anthropomorphic clay figure. Image credit: Dmitriy Kiriçenko

Figure 8: Yaldili Antique cemetery site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 9: Yaldili Grave 14. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 10: Kərpiclitəpə interpretative site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 11: Kərpiclitəpə aerial view of site, 2018. View to east. Image credit: BP

Figure 12: Kərpiclitəpə north-west tower in foreground, 2017. View to south. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 13: Kərpiclitəpə kiln as excavated. View to south-west. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 14: Kərpiclitəpə decorated bone object. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 15: Kərpiclitəpə woven fabric in coin hoard corrosion product. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 16: Borsunlu Camp site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 17: Borsunlu Camp details of kurgans. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 18: Borsunlu Camp Kurgan 4. View to east. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 19: Borsunlu Camp Kurgan 8. View to south. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 20: Faxrali site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 21: Lək I site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 22: Lək II site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 23: Hacialili II site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 24: Hacialili I site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 25: Hacialili III site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 26: Seyidlər II site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 27: Seyidlər all excavated areas. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 28: Seyidlər II site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 29: Qaracəmirli site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 30: Keçili site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 31: Keçili. View to south. Image credit: Dmitriy Kiriçenko

Figure 32: Daşbulaq site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 33: Dəllər Cəyir site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 34: Dəllər Cəyir Kurgan 1. View to east. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 35: Zəyəmçay settlement site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 36: Zəyəmçay necropolis site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 37: Zəyəmçay medieval cemetery and Kurgan 1 site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 38: Zəyəmçay Grave 27 possible grave marker. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 39: Zəyəmçay Kurgan II site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 40: Zəyəmçay Kurgan II. View to north. Image credit: Dmitriy Kiriçenko

Figure 41: Zəyəmçay Kurgans III and IV site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 42: Zəyəmçay Kurgan III plan of stone cover. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 43: Zəyəmçay Kurgan III vertical photograph. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 44: Zəyəmçay Kurgans V and VI site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 45: Ağılı Dərə site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 46: Xocaxan Chalcolithic settlement site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 47: Tovuzçay II site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 48: Həsənsu Antique settlement site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 49: Qıraq Kəsəmən II site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 50: Poylu II site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 51: Poylu II calibrated radiocarbon dates. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 52: Poylu I site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 53: Ağstafa Camp site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 54: Ağstafa Camp Excavation Areas 1 and 2. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 55: Poylu III site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 56: Soyuqbulaq I site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Figure 57: Böyük Kəsik site plan. Image credit: David Maynard and project team

Table 1: Correlation between BTC/SCP and SCPX sites. Coordinates in Gauss-Kruger Zone 8 Pulkovo 1942.

Table 2: Yaldili cemetery features

Table 3: Faxrali cemetery details

Table 4: Seyidlər II grave details

Table 5: Seyidlər jar grave details

Table 6: Zəyəmçay grave details

Table 7: Zəyəmçay Kurgan V details

Table 8: Ağılıdərə details of graves

Table 9: Tovuzçay II details of graves

Table 10: Poylu II excavated features

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