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List of Tables

Table 1: Elms Farm site phasing and comparative ceramic phasing schemes

Table 2: The Key Pottery Groups

Table 3: Minimum Vessel Number Counts (excluding Dressel 20)

Table 4: Summary of amphora forms by sherd count and weight (weights in grams)

Table 5: Dressel 1 rim metrology at Elms Farm (dimensions in millimetres)

Table 6: Dressel 1 handle metrology at Elms Farm (dimensions in millimetres)

Table 7: Minimum Vessel Number Count by Fabric for the Dressel 2-4 amphoras

Table 8: The dates of the illustrated Dressel 20 rims by feature and typology

Table 9: Comparison of the incidence of selected Cam forms at Elms Farm, Camulodunum, Sheepen , Puckeridge-Braughing, Skeleton Green, Baldock, King Harry Lane and Silchester

Table 10: Comparison of cup and platter proportions, based on Rigby (1981a) table III

Table 11: Comparison of cup and platter proportions expressed as a percentage of the total

Table 12: Distribution of samian by zone

Table 13: Distribution of samian by percentage weight

Table 14: Samian as a component of phased pottery groups by EVE (excluding amphora sherds)

Table 15: Samian as a component of phased pottery groups by weight (excluding amphora sherds)

Table 16: Average samian percentages within pottery groups from different site types by weight (excluding amphora sherds)

Table 17: The relative frequency of samian within pottery groups from various sites in Essex by EVE (excluding amphora sherds)

Table 18: Samian as a component of specific pottery groups by EVE (excluding amphora sherds; 'Pool' Groups are specified; all other groups are Key Groups)

Table 19: Samian as a component of specific pottery groups by weight (excluding amphora sherds; 'Pool' Groups are specified; all other groups are Key Groups)

Table 20: Percentage of decorated samian vessels at Elms Farm by source and date

Table 21: Average percentages of decorated vessels among stratified samian assemblages (1st and 2nd centuries AD) from different site types.

Table 22: Quantification of Area W kiln products by EVE

Table 23: Quantification of Area W kiln products by minimum vessel number

Table 24: Quantification of Area L kiln products by EVE

Table 25: Quantification of Area L kiln products by minimum vessel number

Table 26: Total quantities of Area L kiln products by EVE and weight

Table 27: Suggested output on the basis of 5-10% wastage rate

Table 28: Continental platter diameters by ceramic phase (no continental platters were recorded for Phase 5)

Table 29: Local platter diameters by ceramic phase

Table 30: Platter depths by ceramic phase

Table 31: Comparison of continental and local platter diameters, based on 18 continental and 35 local vessels taken from original sample of 175 platters

Table 32: Dish diameter by ceramic phase, based on sample of 825 vessels

Table 33: Dish depth by ceramic phase, based on sample of 113 vessels

Table 34: Vessel classes with 'X' graffiti

Table 35: Chronology of 'X' graffiti

Table 36: Notches on pottery

Table 37: Chronology of notched graffiti

Table 38: Dressel 1 amphoras: Number of context occurrences by feature type and settlement zone

Table 39: Dressel 2-4 amphoras: Number of context occurrences by feature type and settlement zone

Table 40: Dressel 20 amphoras: Number of context occurrences by feature type and settlement zone

Table 41: Distribution of all pierced pottery types by settlement zone (unstratified finds are excluded)

Table 42: Number of holes per vessel and their position in the vessel

Table 43: Hole diameter for vessels pierced after firing

Table 44: Distribution of post-firing pierced vessels by settlement zone (unstratified finds are excluded)

Table 45: Distribution of spindlewhorls by settlement zone (unstratified finds are excluded)

Table 46: Chronology of structured pottery deposits

Table 47: Distribution of structured pottery deposits by feature type

Table 48: Distribution of structured pottery deposits by settlement zone

Table 49: Vessel types chosen for structured deposition

Table 50: Frequency of single and multiple vessel deposits

Table 51: Summary of Late Iron Age coin types

Table 52: Dating scheme for Late Iron Age coins

Table 53: Chronological distribution of Late Iron Age coins

Table 54: Stratified coins and their contexts

Table 55: Spatial distribution of Iron Age coins

Table 56: Datable coins in the Heybridge Iron Age coin assemblage

Table 57: The beads

Table 58: Summary of the bracelets

Table 59: Summary of the finger-rings

Table 60: Function Category 2: toilet, surgical and pharmaceutical instruments

Table 61: Function Category 4: household utensils and furniture, including locks and keys

Table 62: Function Category 5: objects used for recreational purposes

Table 63: Function Category 11: fasteners and fittings

Table 64: Function Category 9: buildings and services

Table 65: Types of unworked stone collected at Elms Farm

Table 66: Function Category 12: objects associated with agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry

Table 67: Non-Red Hill sites in Essex with over twenty sherds of briquetage

Table 68: Function Category 8: objects associated with transport

Table 69: Function Category 6: objects employed for weighing and measuring

Table 70: Function Category 7: objects associated with written communications

Table 71: Function Category 10: tools

Table 72: Function Category 3: objects used in the manufacture or working of textiles

Table 73: Function category 14: objects associated with religious beliefs and practices

Table 74: Votive objects definitely or possibly from the temple area (Area J)

Table 75: Function Category 13: items of military equipment and weapons

Table 76: Elms Farm brooches by type and stratigraphic value

Table 77: Comparison between the Elms Farm and Puckeridge-Braughing assemblages.

Table 78: Types of bone hairpins

Table 79: Frequency of shale bracelets by period

Table 80: Distribution of shale bracelets by area

Table 81: Distribution of saddle querns by area

Table 82: Gross numbers of puddingstone lower and upper stones present

Table 83: Spatial analysis of the pottery discs

Table 84: Quantification of mortar by period (weights in kg)

Table 85: Quantification of Opus signinum by area

Table 86: Quantification of Opus signinum by period

Table 87: Mortar descriptions

Table 88: The components of the material

Table 89: Quantification of wall plaster

Table 90: Daub from identified buildings

Table 91: Baked clay from ovens and hearths

Table 92: Total amounts by tile type

Table 93: Percentages by tile type, excluding spall

Table 94: Tile numbers and weights by period (including spall): discrete periods only

Table 95: Gross amounts of tile by area (number of pieces)

Table 96: Distribution of tile by feature type

Table 97: Animal and human prints present

Table 98: Types of unworked stone collected at Elms Farm

Table 99: Unworked stone; approximate number of contexts per area

Table 100: Septaria and greensand: comparison of numbers of contexts and percentages of contexts by period (discrete periods only)

Table 101: Types of iron nail present at Elms Farm. The nail shafts are square and the heads are perpendicular to the shaft unless otherwise specified

Table 102: Quantities of each weight size

Table 103: Quantities of weights by type

Table 104: Type A weights

Table 105: Type B weights

Table 106: Type C weights

Table 107: Spatial distribution of Type C4 weights

Table 108: The numbers and types of weights from dated contexts

Table 109: Spatial distribution of ceramic spindlewhorls

Table 110: Distribution of spindlewhorls made from grog-tempered pottery

Table 111: Triangular loomweight dimensions

Table 112: Iron tools with handle remains

Table 113: Weights of Roman blooms

Table 114: EDXRF analysis of crucibles

Table 115: Quantities of possible casting waste by site period

Table 116: Quantities of material recovered from each kiln

Table 117: Presence of taxa in hand-collected (HC) and sieved (BS) assemblages, from Elms Farm, Heybridge Essex

Table 118: Numbers of fragments (NISP) of each taxa by period recovered by hand-collection, from Elms Farm, Heybridge Essex

Table 119: Numbers of fragments (NISP) of each taxa by period recovered by sieving, from Elms Farm, Heybridge Essex.

Table 120: Catalogue of the complete and part articulated skeletons from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 121: Numbers of fragments and numbers of individuals represented by articulated material

Table 122: Cattle: relative skeletal element distribution and calculation of the Minimum number of individuals (MNI), from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 123: Sheep/goat: relative skeletal element distribution and calculation of the Minimum number of individuals (MNI), from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 124: Pig: relative skeletal element distribution and calculation of the Minimum number of individuals (MNI), from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 125: Catalogue of sites used for comparison in Figures 587-590

Table 126: Numbers of fragments (NISP) for each taxa by context type for all periods, from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 127: Numbers of fragments (NISP) for each taxa by area for all periods, from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 128: Cattle: calculation of the Minimum number of individuals (MNI) from vertebrae, from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 129: Cattle: epiphyseal fusion (categories after O'Connor 1989), from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex.

Table 130: Cattle: mandibular wear stage data (categories after O'Connor 1988), from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 131: Cattle: tooth wear stage data from loose teeth and mandibles, from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex (xlsx file for download only)

Table 132: Cattle: biometric data - summary tables for measurements with more than ten cases, from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 133: Cattle: results of t-test on biometric data from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 134: Sheep/goat: epiphyseal fusion (categories after O'Connor 1989), from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 135: Sheep/goat: mandibular wear stage data (categories after Payne 1973; 1987), from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 136: Sheep/goat: tooth wear stage data from loose teeth and mandibles, from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex (xlsx file for download only)

Table 137: Sheep/goat: biometric data - summary tables for measurements with more than ten cases, from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 138: Sheep/Goat: results of t-test on biometric data from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 139: Pig: epiphyseal fusion (categories after O'Connor 1989), from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 140: Pig: mandibular wear stage data (categories after O'Connor 1988), from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 141: Pig: tooth wear stage data from loose teeth and mandibles, from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 142: Pig: sex ratio of canine teeth, from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 143: Pig: biometric data - summary tables for measurements with more than ten cases, from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 144: Pig: results of t-test on biometric data from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 145: Horse: skeletal element distribution from Elms Farn, Heybridge, Essex

Table 146: Horse: withers height summary data, from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex and other sites

Table 147: Horse: estimated withers heights, from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 148: Horse: results of t-test on biometric data from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 149: Chicken: results of t-test on biometric data from Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex

Table 150: Synthesis of size variation of the main domestic animals between the main periods of occupation at Elms Farm

Table 151: Synthesis of age variation of the main domestic animals between the main periods of occupation at Elms Farm

Table 152: Summary of identified fish bones

Table 153: Contexts containing oysters and other marine molluscs (contexts in numerical order) (csv file for download only)

Table 154: Features containing oysters and other marine molluscs (contexts in feature order) (csv file for download only)

Table 155: Percentage frequencies of marine mollusc species by feature (csv file for download only)

Table 156: Spatial distribution of oysters - percentage weight of shell by context and area (csv file for download only)

Table 157: Spatial distribution of oysters - summary table (csv file for download only)

Table 158: Temporal distribution of oysters - percentage of shell by context and phase (csv file for download only)

Table 159: Temporal distribution of oysters - summary table (csv file for download only)

Table 160: Numbers of oyster valves in contexts selected for analysis (csv file for download only)

Table 161: Summary size statistics for oysters from selected contexts (csv file for download only)

Table 162: Summary of size data used for comparisons of Elms Farm oysters with other Roman sites (csv file for download only)

Table 163: Summary of size data used for comparisons of Elms Farm oysters with samples from modern oyster populations (csv file for download only)

Table 164: Percentage frequency of infestation evidence in oysters shells from selected contexts at Elms Farm and other Roman sites (csv file for download only)

Table 165: Descriptive characteristics in oysters from selected contexts at Elms Farm (csv file for download only)

Table 166: Cremated and other burnt human bone

Table 167: Unburnt human bone

Table 168: Insects - sample information

Table 169: Coleoptera (xlsx file for download only)

Table 170: Other insects (xlsx file for download only)

Table 171: Summary of insect analysis

Table 172: Charred plant remains from Heybridge, Period 2, LIA/ER contexts (csv file for download only)

Table 173: Charred plant remains from Heybridge, Early Roman, Period 3 (xlsx file for download only)

Table 174: Charred plant remains from Heybridge, later Roman Periods 4-6 (csv file for download only)

Table 175: Occurrence of charred plant remains: total numbers found in 20 samples from each period, followed by the number of samples in which the plants occurred

Table 176: Plant macrofossils from Well 13883, Area I, Period 3B, mid-1st to early 2nd century (xlsx file for download only)

Table 177: Plant macrofossils from Well 9421, Area D, Period 3B, 2nd century (xlsx file for download only)

Table 178: Plant macrofossils from Well 8188, Area E, Period 3, mid-2nd to early 3rd century (xlsx file for download only)

Table 179: Plant macrofossils from the palaeochannel, Area R, Period 4, 3rd century (xlsx file for download only)

Table 180: Plant macrofossils from Well 14984, Area L, Period 4-5, early to mid-4th century (xlsx file for download only)

Table 181: List of taxa from Elms Farm (xlsx file for download only)

Table 182: Pollen results (csv file for download only)

Table 183: Pollen results (continued) (csv file for download only)

Table 184: Facies types (soil microfabric types and associated data) (xlsx file for download only)

Table 185: Soil micromorphology chemistry

Table 186: Microprobe analysis of orange-coloured cemented soil

Table 187: Details of the measured tree-ring samples.

Table 188: t-value matrix for matching ring sequences from well 6280

Table 189: t-value matrix for matching ring sequences from well 8188

Table 190: t-value matrix for matching ring sequences from well 9421

Table 191: t-value matrix for matching ring sequences from well 14984

Table 192: t-value matrix for the master sequences from each feature

Table 193: Dating the Elms Farm masters. t-values for independent reference chronologies

Table 194: Elms Farm tree-ring chronology, AD 27-205 (xlsx file for download only)

Table 195: Archaeomagnetic results from Heybridge, Essex (csv file for download only)

Table 196: Weights of Roman blooms

Table 197: Analysis of slag inclusions in the bloom (SEM-EDS, weight per cent, average of 24 different points)

Table 198: Analysis (SEM-EDS, weight per cent) of the bloomery iron and comparison with other published data on Roman blooms and ingots

Table 199: Analytical results for the Heybridge sample compared with average values for Roman enamels (after Henderson 1991, table II)

Table 200: The Group 21 pins from Elms Farm

Table 201: Pottery in pyre sites

Table 202: Pottery in pyre-related features

Table 203: The pottery in the Late Iron Age cremation burials

Table 204: Pottery in Roman-period cremation burials

Table 205: Ancillary vessels from the Roman-period cremations

Table 206: Foods available at Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex, by period


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