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Supplementary Data File 4: Core Logs

Martin Bates

Cite this as: Gaffney, V. et al. 2020 A Massive, Late Neolithic Pit Structure associated with Durrington Walls Henge, Internet Archaeology 55. https://doi.org/10.11141/ia.55.4

Core cutting was carried out under controlled conditions in the University of Warwick laboratories. Initial sampling for preserved sedimentary DNA (sedaDNA) was undertaken in environmentally controlled conditions, and under red light, so as to minimise likely light contamination of sediments designated for Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) profiling and dating. After cutting, one half of the core was immediately sealed in black plastic for OSL dating. The other half of the core was rapidly assessed, and samples taken for specialist analyses. Core recording procedures follow the guidelines of Jones et al. (1999).

Table 4.1: Core log for pit 7A. Sample for molluscs taken at 4.80-4.85m (wet weight 123.6g)
ProjectStonehenge Landscape Project: Feature 7A Borehole BH1
Easting Northing
ElevationDate drilled 21/10/19
Date to laboratory Date recorded 18/11/19
Date sampledLocation of samples Lampeter Cold Store
Depth below ground surface (m) Depth OD Lithological description Unit Number
0.00–0.25 Topsoil
---diffuse contact---
0.25–1.25 Yellowish-brown clay silt with angular flint clasts <5cm in size. Common angular chalk clasts, <1cm. Compact and firm.
---diffuse contact---
1.25–1.88 Yellowish-brown chalk-rich silt. Very common small chalk clasts (<1cm). Loose and unconsolidated. Clast supported.
---diffuse contact---
1.88–2.27 Yellowish-brown chalk-rich silt. Common small chalk clasts (<1cm). Loose and unconsolidated. Matrix supported.
---diffuse contact---
2.27–3.25 Yellowish-brown clay silt with occasional chalk clasts. Very loose and unconsolidated.
---diffuse contact---
3.25–4.85 Yellowish-brown chalky silt. Very poorly sorted clasts (<5cm). Common angular clasts of flint. Very loose and unconsolidated.
---abrupt contact---
4.85– White fractured chalk bedrock.
---base of borehole 5.00m
Figure 4.1
Figure 4.1: Photograph of profile of core taken from pit 7A
Table 4.2: Core log for pit 8A. Samples for molluscs taken at 1.50-1.55m (wet weight 191.9g), 2.60-2.65m (wet weight 104.3g), 3.50-3.55m (wet weight 84g) and 4.35-4.40m (wet weight 124g). Bone sample taken for 14C dating at 4.72m
ProjectStonehenge Landscape Project: Feature 8A Borehole BH2
Easting Northing
ElevationDate drilled 21/10/19
Date to laboratory Date recorded 18/11/19
Date sampledLocation of samples Lampeter Cold Store
Depth below ground surface (m) Depth OD Lithological description Unit Number
0.00–0.15 Topsoil
---diffuse contact---
0.15–1.80 Yellowish-brown chalky silt. Chalk clasts are common, <1cm and angular. Matrix supported. Dense and compact.
---diffuse contact---
1.80–2.60 Yellowish-brown chalky silts (as above) but chalk clasts more common.
---abrupt contact---
2.60–4.35 Grey calcareous silts. Structureless and massive. Molluscs present throughout. Rare chalk clasts.
---diffuse contact---
4.35–4.65 Grey silt with common angular chalk clasts (<2cm). Matrix supported and dense and compact.
---diffuse contact---
4.65–4.76 Grey silt with occasional chalk clasts. Structureless and loose. Flint artefact at 4.73m. Bone fragments, horizontal orientation, fragmented.
---abrupt contact---
4.76–4.90 Yellowish-brown silt with chalk clasts (<1cm). Occasional flint clasts. Loose and unconsolidated.
---sharp contact---
4.90– White fractured chalk bedrock.
---base of borehole 5.00m
Figure 4.2
Figure 4.2: Photograph of profile of core taken from pit 7A
Table 4.3: Core log for pit 5A. Bone sample taken for 14C dating at 5.18m
ProjectStonehenge Landscape Project: Feature 5A Borehole BH3
Easting Northing
ElevationDate drilled 21/10/19
Date to laboratory Date recorded 18/11/19
Date sampledLocation of samples Lampeter Cold Store
Depth below ground surface (m) Depth OD Lithological description Unit Number
0.00–0.30 Topsoil
---abrupt contact---
0.30–2.00 Strong reddish-brown to yellowish-brown clay silt. Occasional sharp, angular flints <6cm. Compact and firm.
---not observed---
2.00–4.50 Yellowish-brown clay silt with chalk clasts <2cm. Becomes more chalky with depth. Matrix supported, firm and compact. Occasional large, angular, sharp flints.
---abrupt contact---
4.50–5.25 Brown clay silt. Charcoal fragments throughout, bone fragments present, often rich in bone. Occasional chalk clasts. Moderately firm and compact.
---abrupt contact---
5.25–? Flint gravel with many bone fragments. Clayey matrix with charcoal fragments. Some flints appear to be burnt. Structureless and cohesive.
---not observed---
6.00-7.00 Yellowish-brown clay silt with small chalk clasts. Possibly bedded with darker brown horizons. Firm and cohesive.
---base of borehole 7.00m
Figure 4.3
Figure 4.3: Photograph of profile of core taken from pit 5A

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