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A Massive, Late Neolithic Pit Structure associated with Durrington Walls Henge

Vincent Gaffney, Eamonn Baldwin, Martin Bates, C. Richard Bates, Christopher Gaffney, Derek Hamilton, Tim Kinnaird, Wolfgang Neubauer, Ronald Yorston, Robin Allaby, Henry Chapman, Paul Garwood, Klaus Löcker, Alois Hinterleitner, Tom Sparrow, Immo Trinks, Mario Wallner and Matt Leivers

Cite this as: Gaffney, V. et al. 2020 A Massive, Late Neolithic Pit Structure associated with Durrington Walls Henge, Internet Archaeology 55. https://doi.org/10.11141/ia.55.4

Summary

The bounds of Durrington anomaly 8A
The bounds of Durrington anomaly 8A

A series of massive geophysical anomalies, located south of the Durrington Walls henge monument, were identified during fluxgate gradiometer survey undertaken by the Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes Project (SHLP). Initially interpreted as dewponds, these data have been re-evaluated, along with information on similar features revealed by archaeological contractors undertaking survey and excavation to the north of the Durrington Walls henge. Analysis of the available data identified a total of 20 comparable features, which align within a series of arcs adjacent to Durrington Walls. Further geophysical survey, supported by mechanical coring, was undertaken on several geophysical anomalies to assess their nature, and to provide dating and environmental evidence. The results of fieldwork demonstrate that some of these features, at least, were massive, circular pits with a surface diameter of 20m or more and a depth of at least 5m. Struck flint and bone were recovered from primary silts and radiocarbon dating indicates a Late Neolithic date for the lower silts of one pit. The degree of similarity across the 20 features identified suggests that they could have formed part of a circuit of large pits around Durrington Walls, and this may also have incorporated the recently discovered Larkhill causewayed enclosure. The diameter of the circuit of pits exceeds 2km and there is some evidence that an intermittent, inner post alignment may have existed within the circuit of pits. One pit may provide evidence for a recut; suggesting that some of these features could have been maintained through to the Middle Bronze Age. Together, these features represent a unique group of features related to the henge at Durrington Walls, executed at a scale not previously recorded.

Animation illustrating the landscape setting of the Durrington pit group, major monuments and the average distance from Durrington Walls to identified features as a line. © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 (OS Profile DTM Scale 1:10000); EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

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  • Keywords: Durrington Walls, Stonehenge, geophysics, Late Neolithic, Middle Bronze Age, landscape archaeology
  • Accepted: 1 June 2020. Published: 21 June 2020
  • Funding: The University of Bradford Research Development Fund and the University of St Andrews funded this open access publication.
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Corresponding author: Vincent GaffneyORCID logo
V.Gaffney@bradford.ac.uk
School of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences, University of Bradford

Co-authors: Eamonn Baldwin
Department of Classics, Ancient History and Archaeology, University of Birmingham

Martin Bates
Faculty of Humanities and Performing Arts, University of Wales Trinity Saint David

C. Richard BatesORCID logo
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of St Andrews

Christopher Gaffney
School of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences, University of Bradford

Derek Hamilton
SUERC Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory

Tim KinnairdORCID logo
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of St Andrews

Wolfgang NeubauerORCID logo
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology/VIAS-Vienna Institute for Archaeological Science, University of Vienna

Ronald Yorston
School of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences, University of Bradford

Robin AllabyORCID logo
School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick

Henry ChapmanORCID logo
Department of Classics, Ancient History and Archaeology, University of Birmingham

Paul Garwood
Department of Classics, Ancient History and Archaeology, University of Birmingham

Klaus Löcker
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology/ZAMG-Archeo Prospections

Alois HinterleitnerORCID logo
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology

Tom Sparrow
School of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences, University of Bradford

Immo TrinksORCID logo
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology

Mario WallnerORCID logo
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology

Matt Leivers
Wessex Archaeology

Full text

Figure 1: The Stonehenge landscape and principal monuments over an OS profile data digital elevation model with OS topographic mapping overlay © Crown copyright and database rights 2019 (OS MasterMap® Scale 1:1250) and 2013 (OS Profile DTM Scale 1:10000); EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 2: Magnetic anomalies 1A to 9A. Fluxgate Gradiometer survey data mapped as part of the SHLP and supplied by LBI ArchPro

Figure 3: Anomalies 1A–9A over Lidar-derived digital surface model (shaded) with OS 10k overlay © Environment Agency copyright and database right 2019. All rights reserved. Lidar Composite DTM 2m resolution, Scale 1:8000 and 1m resolution, Scale 1:4000; © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 OS 1:10000 Scale; EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 4: Features 5A-9A with associated pit alignment over Lidar-derived digital surface model (shaded) with OS 10k overlay © Environment Agency copyright and database right 2019. All rights reserved. Lidar Composite DTM 2m resolution, Scale 1:8000 and 1m resolution, Scale 1:4000 © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 OS 1:10000 Scale; EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 5: Features 10D, 11D, 12D and 13D after magnetic surveys by Wessex Archaeology (Urmston 2014, fig. 3, and Schmidt and Crabb 2017, fig. 3) as well as probable features iii and iv after DIO (2017, 20) located over an OS topographic mapping base layer © Crown copyright and database rights 2019 (OS MasterMap® Scale 1:1250); EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 6: Features north of Durrington over Lidar-derived digital surface model (shaded) with OS 10k overlay © Environment Agency copyright and database right 2019. All rights reserved. Lidar Composite DTM 2m resolution, Scale 1:8000 and 1m resolution, Scale 1:4000; 2013 (OS Profile DTM Scale 1:10000); EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 7: Features 10A to 15D and i to v. Features 10D–12D after Urmston 2014 (Wessex Archaeology), Feature 13D after Schmidt and Crabb 2017 (Wessex Archaeology), Features 14D–15D after Thompson and Powell 2018 (Wessex Archaeology), Feature i supplied by the LBI ArchPro Vienna, Feature ii after Crutchley 2002 (National Mapping Programme), Features iii and iv after DIO 2017, 20 and Feature v after Google Maps (2019)

Figure 8: Distribution of features over a composite Lidar and OS profile data derived digital surface model (shaded) with OS 10k overlay © Environment Agency copyright and database right 2019. All rights reserved. Lidar Composite DTM 2m resolution, Scale 1:8000 and 1m resolution, Scale 1:4000; © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 OS 1:10000 Scale and Profile DTM Raster, Scale 1:10K; EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 9: Extent of large area geophysical surveys around Stonehenge and Durrington Walls and the location of probable and potential features over 5m in diameter over an OS profile data digital elevation model (shaded) with OS topographic mapping overlay © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 OS Profile DTM Raster, Scale 1:10K; EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 10: Southern anomaly group – geophysical and borehole survey locations over Lidar-derived digital surface model (shaded) with OS 10K overlay © Environment Agency copyright and database right 2019. All rights reserved. Lidar Composite DTM 2m resolution, Scale 1:8000 and 1m resolution, Scale 1:4000; © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 OS 1:10000 Scale; EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 11: Vibracoring at 8A, looking north-east towards Durrington Walls

Figure 12: Dando Terrier rig in action at 5A looking north-west to anomalies 6A–7A, Strangways and Larkhill

Figure 13: Anomaly 8A – 250MHz antenna: time slices at 10cm depth intervals, decreasing L–R from ground surface (top left) down to approximately 3m depth (bottom right)

Figure 14: Anomaly 8A – 250MHz antenna: sample radargrams at 7.5m intervals within the survey grid depicting the changing shape of the feature

Figure 15: 7A core profile in metre lengths

Figure 16: 8A core profile in metre lengths showing struck flint and bone fragments in lower fills

Figure 17: 5A core profile in metre lengths showing bone fragments in lower fills

Figure 18: Southern pit group and Durrington Walls in relation to superficial geology deposits over Lidar-derived digital surface model (shaded) with OS 10K overlay © Environment Agency copyright and database right 2019. All rights reserved. Lidar Composite DTM 2m resolution, Scale 1:8000 and 1m resolution, Scale 1:4000; © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 OS 1:10000 Scale and 2018 BGS 1:10000; EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey and British Geological Survey service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 19: Luminescence stratigraphies for cores 8A and 5A. IRSL signal intensities in red, OSL signal intensities in blue. The magnitude and range in signal intensities encodes information on age, grain size, luminescence sensitivity and radioactivity of the sediment

Figure 20: Animation illustrating the landscape setting of the Durrington pit group, major monuments and the average distance from Durrington Walls to identified features as a line © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 (OS Profile DTM Scale 1:10000); EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 21: Location of flint mines near Durrington Walls (Stone 1958), and section of excavated mine (Booth and Stone 1952)

Figure 22: Distance of feature from the boundary of Durrington Walls

Figure 23: Average pit distance to pits as a circular boundary and a simple cost surface generated from the centre of Durrington Walls and cropped at the Larkhill Causewayed enclosure © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 (OS Profile DTM Scale 1:10000); EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 24: Views from Larkhill causewayed enclosure (left), Pit 11D (centre) and pit 15D (right) towards the summer solstice sunrise and Sidbury Hill. The yellow arc represents the path of the Sun; the red arc represents the major lunar limit.

Supplementary Figures

Figure 1.1: Magnetic anomalies (1A–9A) and potential anomaly i overlain OS 10K mapping. Fluxgate gradiometer survey mapped as part of the SHLP and supplied by LBI ArchPro. © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 OS 1:10000 Scale; EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 1.2: Anomaly 1A – fluxgate gradiometer data mapped as part of the SHLP and supplied by LBI ArchPro

Figure 1.3: Anomaly 2A –fluxgate gradiometer data mapped as part of the SHLP and supplied by LBI ArchPro with OS topographic outline © Crown copyright and database rights 2019, OS MasterMap® Scale 1:1250; Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 1.4: Anomaly 3A – fluxgate gradiometer data mapped as part of the SHLP and supplied by LBI ArchPro with OS topographic outline © Crown copyright and database rights 2019, OS MasterMap® Scale 1:1250; Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 1.5: Anomaly 4A – fluxgate gradiometer data mapped as part of the SHLP and supplied by LBI ArchPro with AP transcript bank (Crutchley 2002) overlain

Figure 1.6: Anomaly 5A – fluxgate gradiometer data mapped as part of the SHLP and supplied by LBI ArchPro with OS topographic outline © Crown copyright and database rights 2019, OS MasterMap® Scale 1:1250; Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 1.7: Anomaly 6A – fluxgate gradiometer data mapped as part of the SHLP and supplied by LBI ArchPro with AP transcript bank (Crutchley 2002) overlain and OS Topographic outline included © Crown copyright and database rights 2019, OS MasterMap® Scale 1:1250; Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 1.8: Anomaly 7A –fluxgate gradiometer data mapped as part of the SHLP and supplied by LBI ArchPro with AP transcript ditch (Crutchley 2002) overlain and OS topographic outline included © Crown copyright and database rights 2019, OS MasterMap® Scale 1:1250; Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 1.9: Anomaly 8A – fluxgate gradiometer data mapped as part of the SHLP and supplied by LBI ArchPro

Figure 1.10: Anomaly 9A – fluxgate gradiometer data mapped as part of the SHLP and supplied by LBI ArchPro

Figure 1.11: Potential and related features north of Durrington over a shaded, composite digital surface model (combination of Lidar data and OS Profile data) © Environment Agency copyright and database right 2019. All rights reserved. Lidar Composite DTM 2m resolution, Scale 1:8000 and 1m resolution, Scale 1:4000; © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 OS 1:10000 Scale and OS Profile DTM Raster, Scale 1:10000; EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 1.12: Anomaly i – fluxgate gradiometer data mapped as part of the SHLP and supplied by LBI ArchPro

Figure 1.13: Topographic depressions associated with anomaly i left and anomaly 1A right © Environment Agency copyright and database right 2019. All rights reserved. Lidar Composite DTM 2m resolution, Scale 1:8000 and 1m resolution, Scale 1:4000; © Crown copyright and database rights 2019 (OS MasterMap® Scale 1:1250); EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 1.14: Anomaly ii – a circular bank feature, outlined in blue, recorded during the National Mapping Programme (Crutchley 2002) overlain Lidar derived digital surface model (shaded) with OS 10k overlay. © Environment Agency copyright and database right 2019. All rights reserved. Lidar Composite DTM 2m resolution, Scale 1:8000 and 1m resolution, Scale 1:4000; © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 OS 1:10000 Scale; EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 1.15: Anomaly iii – unlabelled features previously marked as of archaeological interest (DIO 2017, Constraints and Opportunities Plan, 20)

Figure 1.16: Features 10D, 11D, 12D and 13D after magnetic surveys by Wessex Archaeology (Urmston 2014, fig. 3, and Schmidt and Crabb 2017), fig. 3) as well as probable features iii and iv after DIO (2017, 20) located over an OS topographic mapping base layer © Crown copyright and database rights 2019 (OS MasterMap® Scale 1:1250); EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 1.17: Anomaly iv – unlabelled features previously marked as of archaeological interest (DIO 2017, Constraints and Opportunities Plan, 20).

Figure 1.18: Anomaly (vi) Crop mark from Google Earth

Figure 1.19: Anomaly 10D – caesium vapour magnetic anomaly WA 4008 (Urmston 2014, fig. 3)

Figure 1.20: Anomaly 11D – caesium vapour magnetic anomaly WA 4007 (Urmston 2014, fig. 3)

Figure 1.21: Anomaly 12D – caesium vapour anomaly WA 4006 (Urmston 2014, fig. 3)

Figure 1.22: Anomaly 13D – magnetic anomaly WA 6016 (Schmidt and Crabb 2017)

Figure 1.23: Area 1 Excavation plan with feature 14D and post alignment, after Thompson and Powell 2018

Figure 1.24: Area 4 Excavation plan with feature 15D, after Thompson and Powell 2018

Figure 1.25: Anomalies 14D and 15D and associated post alignment, after Thompson and Powell 2018

Figure 2.1: Anomaly 1A – grid map with NW–SE and SW–NE traverses marked over fluxgate gradiometer data mapped as part of the SHLP and supplied by LBI ArchPro

Figure 2.2: Anomaly 1A: 250MHz profiles W–E (top) and E–N (bottom)

Figure 2.3: Anomaly 1A: 500MHz profiles W–E (top) and E–N (bottom)

Figure 2.4: Anomaly 5A – grid map with NW–SE and SW–NE traverses marked over fluxgate gradiometer data mapped as part of the SHLP and supplied by LBI ArchPro © Crown copyright and database rights 2019 (OS MasterMap® Scale 1:1250); EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 2.5: Anomaly 5A – 250MHz radargrams NW-SE (top) and SW-NE (bottom)

Figure 2.6: Initial 400 MHz GPR survey time slices of anomaly 7A in relation to barrow group Amesbury 147–150 and Amesbury 38a, mapped as part of the SHLP and supplied by LBI ArchPro

Figure 2.7: Anomaly 7A – 250MHz antenna: location of the below radargrams (marked in blue) within the survey grid. The background is a raw data time slice c.0.5m below surface

Figure 2.8: Anomaly 7A – 250MHz antenna: sample radargrams at 7.5m intervals within the survey grid depicting the changing shape of the feature

Figure 2.9: Anomaly 7A – 250MHz antenna: time slices at 10cm depth intervals, decreasing L–R from ground surface (top left) down to approximately 4.5cm depth (bottom right)

Figure 2.10: Anomaly 8A – 250MHz antenna: location of the below radargrams (marked in blue) within the survey grid. The background is a raw data timeslice c.0.5m below surfac

Figure 2.11: Anomaly 8A – 250MHz antenna: sample radargrams at 7.5m intervals within the survey grid depicting the changing shape of the feature

Figure 2.12: Anomaly 8A – 250MHz antenna: time slices at 10cm depth intervals, decreasing L–R from ground surface (top left) down to approximately 3.3m depth (bottom centre)

Figure 2.13: Anomaly 8A – 500MHz antenna: location of the below radargrams (marked in blue) within the survey grid. The background is a raw data timeslice c.0.5m below surface

Figure 2.14: Anomaly 8A – 500MHz antenna: sample radargrams at 7.5m intervals within the survey grid depicting the changing shape of the feature

Figure 2.15: Anomaly 8A – 250MHz antenna: time slices at 10cm depth intervals, decreasing L–R from ground surface (top left) down to approximately 2.75m depth (bottom left)

Figure 2.16: Anomaly 8A – 500MHz antenna: 3D cube of the 500MHz response demonstrating the verticality of the feature edges

Figure 3.1: Conductivity map for electromagnetic instrument CMD Explorer using coil 1 (shallow) sensor acquired over whole site with line spacing approximately 5m separation. Anomalies 7A and 8A shown as yellow circles

Figure 3.2: Conductivity map for electromagnetic instrument CMD Explorer using coil 2 (medium depth) acquired sensor over whole site with line spacing approximately 5m separation. Anomalies 7A and 8A shown as yellow circles

Figure 3.3: Conductivity map for electromagnetic instrument CMD Explorer using coil 3 (deep) sensor acquired over whole site with line spacing approximately 5m separation. Anomalies 7A and 8A shown as yellow circles

Figure 3.4: Conductivity map for electromagnetic instrument CMD Explorer using coil 1 (shallow) sensor acquired with line spacing of less than 2m over feature. Anomalies 7A and 8A shown as yellow circles

Figure 3.5: Conductivity map for electromagnetic instrument CMD Explorer using coil 2 (medium depth) sensor acquired with line spacing of less than 2m over feature. Anomalies 7A and 8A shown as yellow circles

Figure 3.6: Conductivity map for electromagnetic instrument CMD Explorer using coil 3 (deep) sensor acquired with line spacing of less than 2m over feature. Anomalies 7A and 8A shown as yellow circles

Figure 3.7: Inphase map for electromagnetic instrument CMD Explorer using coil 1 (shallow) sensor acquired over whole site with line spacing approximately 5m separation. Anomaly 8A shown as a yellow circle

Figure 3.8: Inphase map for electromagnetic instrument CMD Explorer using coil 2 (medium depth) acquired sensor over whole site with line spacing approximately 5m separation. Anomaly 8A shown as a yellow circle

Figure 3.9: Inphase map for electromagnetic instrument CMD Explorer using coil 3 (deep) sensor acquired over whole site with line spacing approximately 5m separation. Anomaly 8A shown as a yellow circle

Figure 3.10: Inphase map for electromagnetic instrument CMD Explorer using coil 1 (shallow) sensor acquired with line spacing of less than 2m over feature. Anomaly 8A shown as a yellow circle

Figure 3.11: Inphase map for electromagnetic instrument CMD Explorer using coil 2 (medium depth) sensor acquired with line spacing of less than 2m over feature. Anomaly 8A shown as a yellow circle

Figure 3.12: Inphase map for electromagnetic instrument CMD Explorer using coil 3 (deep) sensor acquired with line spacing of less than 2m over feature. Anomaly 8A shown as a yellow circle

Figure 4.1: Photograph of profile of core taken from pit 7A

Figure 4.2: Photograph of profile of core taken from pit 7A

Figure 4.3: Photograph of profile of core taken from pit 5A

Figure 5.1: Luminescence stratigraphies for cores 8A (left, BH2) and 5A (right, BH3). IRSL signal intensities in red, OSL signal intensities in blue. The magnitude and range in signal intensities encodes information on age, grain size, luminescence sensitivity and radioactivity of the sediment

Figure 6.1: SUERC-92464

Figure 6.2: SUERC-92465

Figure 6.3: SUERC-92466

Figure 6.4: SUERC-92470

Figure 6.5: SUERC-92471

Figure 7.1: Viewshed from Durrington Walls (2m observer height) © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 OS Profile DTM Raster, Scale 1:10000; EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 7.2: View from estimated top of the Durrington Walls bank (3m) © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 OS Profile DTM Raster, Scale 1:10000; EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 7.3: View from maximum estimated top of the Durrington Walls bank plus viewer height (5m) © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 OS Profile DTM Raster, Scale 1:10000; EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 7.4: Viewshed from Larkhill causewayed enclosure excavated ditch segments © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 OS Profile DTM Raster, Scale 1:10000; EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 7.5: Distance of feature from the boundary of Durrington Walls henge

Figure 7.6: The average distance of pits as a circular boundary © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 OS Profile DTM Raster, Scale 1:10000; EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 7.7: Average pit distance to pits as a circular boundary and a simple cost surface generated from the centre of Durrington Walls and cropped at the Larkhill Causewayed enclosure © Crown copyright and database rights 2013 OS Profile DTM Raster, Scale 1:10000; EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service (100025252) http://digimap.edina.ac.uk

Figure 8.1: A) Profile of anomaly 8A plotted by depth (m) and areas (m²) derived from raw and processed 250 mhz GPR data. B) Profile of anomaly 7A plotted by depth (m) and areas (m²) derived from raw and processed 500 mhz GPR data

Figure 9.1: View from the Southern Circle at Durringon Walls towards the winter solstice sunrise. The yellow arc represents the path of the sun; the green and red arcs represent the minor and major lunar limits

Figure 9.2: View from the Durrington Walls Avenue towards the summer solstice sunset

Figure 9.3: Viewshed for the Durrington Walls Avenue

Figure 9.4: View from pit i towards the summer solstice sunrise

Figure 9.5: Views from pits i (left), 8A (centre) and 9A (right) towards the winter solstice sunset

Figure 9.6: Views from Larkhill causewayed enclosure (left), Pit 11D (centre) and pit 15D (right) towards the summer solstice sunrise

Table 1: 14C dates from features 5A, 7A and 8A

Table 1.1: Summary of features, their dimensions and associated data

Table 1.2: Motorised Fluxgate gradiometer details

Table 2.1: Handheld Ground Penetrating Radar summary

Table 2.2: Motorised Ground Penetrating Radar summary

Table 2.3: Ground Penetrating Radar summary

Table 2.4: Anomaly 7A – approximate dimensions summary from GPR surveys

Table 2.5: Anomaly 8A – approximate dimensions summary from GPR 250MHz survey

Table 3-1: EM - Conductivity Meter details

Table 4.1: Core log for pit 7A. Sample for molluscs taken at 4.80-4.85m (wet weight 123.6g)

Table 4.2: Core log for pit 8A. Samples for molluscs taken at 1.50-1.55m (wet weight 191.9g), 2.60-2.65m (wet weight 104.3g), 3.50-3.55m (wet weight 84g) and 4.35-4.40m (wet weight 124g). Bone sample taken for 14C dating at 4.72m

Table 4.3: Core log for pit 5A. Bone sample taken for 14C dating at 5.18m

Table 5.1: IRSL and OSL net signal intensities and depletion indices for sediments recovered from cores BH2 and BH3

Table 6.1: 14C dates from features 5A, 7A and 8A

Table 7.1: Feature distance from the boundary of Durrington Walls Henge Feature Distance

Table 9.1: Horizon distances (km) for pits in the southern arc

Table 9.2: Horizon distances (km) for pits in the northern arc

Table 9.3: Horizon distances (km) for pit ii and Durrington walls

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