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Supplementary Data File 5: Luminescence investigations of sediments

Tim Kinnaird

Cite this as: Gaffney, V. et al. 2020 A Massive, Late Neolithic Pit Structure associated with Durrington Walls Henge, Internet Archaeology 55. https://doi.org/10.11141/ia.55.4

Luminescence stratigraphies were generated for the sediments recovered in cores BH2 and BH3 (features 8A and 5A, respectively) following the methods of Kinnaird et al. (2017a; 2017b).

Sampling was undertaken at the core store at the University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Lampeter, between the 3rd and 5th of February 2020. Cores BH2 and BH3 were sampled for OSL profiling and dating. Previously, the cores had been split under subdued light conditions at the University of Warwick, with one-half sampled for preserved sedimentary DNA (sedaDNA), then sedimentological and palaeontological analyses, and the other retained for sampling and OSL screening. The available sedimentological evidence was reviewed, then the cores sampled for OSL screening measurements with portable OSL equipment (Table 5.1; Figure 5.1).

Samples were collected at regular intervals (<10 cm) through the cores, with tighter resolution sampling (2-5cm) around stratigraphic breaks. Profiling measurements were made with portable OSL equipment (Sanderson and Murphy 2010). 4-5 grams of bulk sediment were presented for measurement in 50mm plastic petri dishes. Natural luminescence signals were measured with an interleaved sequence of system dark count (background), infra-red stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, similar to that described by Kinnaird et al. (2017a; 2017b). The readout sequence consisted of a 15 s dark count, 2 x 30 s IRSL stimulations, a 15 s dark count, 2 x 30 s OSL stimulations, and a final dark count. The summary files were extracted from the acquisition software, and interrogated in Excel, to calculate dark count rates, IRSL and OSL integrated signal intensities (parameterised here as the gross count over 60 s, minus the backgrounds recorded before and after stimulation), depletion rates (parameterised here as a depletion index comprising the ratio of the net intensity in the first half of the stimulation period to that from the second half) and IRSL/OSL ratios.

These values are shown in Table 5.1 and plotted relative to their position in the stratigraphy in Figure 5.1. This provided the first appraisal of net OSL signal variations within each of the sampled cores, and the means to identify the key temporal breaks and stratigraphic packages within the sedimentary sequences.

Table 5.1: IRSL and OSL net signal intensities and depletion indices for sediments recovered from cores BH2 and BH3
Field IDDepth/cmIRSLOSLField ID Depth/cmIRSLOSL
Net signal intensities Depletion indices Net signal intensities Depletion indices Net signal intensities Depletion indices Net signal intensities Depletion indices
bh2/1 10 1610 ± 50 1.75 ± 0.1 6500 ± 90 2.32 ± 0.07bh3/1 40 160 ± 30 1.96 ± 0.31 2480 ± 60 1.84 ± 0.08
bh2/2 20 290 ± 30 1.38 ± 0.2 2860 ± 60 2.33 ± 0.1 bh3/2 50 360 ± 40 1.21 ± 0.15 3360 ± 70 1.68 ± 0.06
bh2/3 30 870 ± 40 1.44 ± 0.11 12450 ± 120 2.4 ± 0.05 bh3/3 60 1830 ± 50 1.41 ± 0.07 11520 ± 110 2.11 ± 0.04
bh2/4 40 840 ± 40 1.64 ± 0.13 12760 ± 120 2.2 ± 0.04 bh3/4 71 2430 ± 60 1.57 ± 0.07 15570 ± 130 2.15 ± 0.04
bh2/5 50 2030 ± 60 1.55 ± 0.08 19620 ± 140 2.18 ± 0.03 bh2/5 81 2890 ± 60 1.39 ± 0.06 19370 ± 140 2.04 ± 0.03
bh2/6 60 1700 ± 50 1.53 ± 0.08 22950 ± 150 2.45 ± 0.04 bh3/6 92 2800 ± 60 1.6 ± 0.07 20010 ± 140 2.08 ± 0.03
bh2/7 67 1250 ± 50 1.63 ± 0.1 20670 ± 150 2.37 ± 0.04 bh3/7 99 2860 ± 70 1.48 ± 0.06 21290 ± 150 1.97 ± 0.03
bh2/8 84 1530 ± 50 1.56 ± 0.09 22470 ± 150 2.75 ± 0.04 bh3/8 120 3940 ± 70 1.51 ± 0.05 26820 ± 170 2.13 ± 0.03
vc45/9 135 11480 ± 110 1.89 ± 0.04 43700 ± 210 2.48 ± 0.03 bh3/9 130 2770 ± 100 2.93 ± 0.1 34040 ± 190 2.21 ± 0.03
bh2/10 143 1560 ± 50 1.53 ± 0.09 22940 ± 160 2.7 ± 0.04 bh3/10 141 4640 ± 80 1.43 ± 0.04 33000 ± 180 2.09 ± 0.02
bh2/11 151 1500 ± 50 1.59 ± 0.09 22940 ± 150 2.6 ± 0.04 bh3/11 150 2900 ± 80 1.64 ± 0.06 28630 ± 170 2.06 ± 0.03
bh2/12 160 1820 ± 50 1.55 ± 0.08 26740 ± 170 2.7 ± 0.04 bh3/12 161 4780 ± 80 1.53 ± 0.05 35460 ± 190 2.17 ± 0.02
bh2/13 170 2110 ± 50 1.43 ± 0.07 25290 ± 160 2.76 ± 0.04 bh3/13 169 5500 ± 80 1.46 ± 0.04 38020 ± 200 2.12 ± 0.02
bh2/14 180 2050 ± 60 1.6 ± 0.08 25220 ± 160 2.62 ± 0.04 bh3/14 180 5250 ± 80 1.49 ± 0.04 36420 ± 190 2.16 ± 0.02
bh2/15 189 1610 ± 50 1.66 ± 0.09 23690 ± 160 2.65 ± 0.04 bh3/15 189 5360 ± 80 1.45 ± 0.04 34920 ± 1902.06 ± 0.02
bh2/16 198 - - 24840 ± 170 3.06 ± 0.05bh3/16 197 4860 ± 80 1.41 ± 0.04 31430 ± 180 2 ± 0.02
bh2/17 209 1330 ± 50 1.59 ± 0.1 22090 ± 150 2.52 ± 0.04 bh3/17 228 4280 ± 70 1.44 ± 0.05 27140 ± 170 1.97 ± 0.03
bh2/18 220 1570 ± 50 1.55 ± 0.09 24180 ± 160 2.56 ± 0.04 bh3/18 236 5230 ± 80 1.53 ± 0.04 35330 ± 190 2.04 ± 0.02
bh2/19 238 2930 ± 60 1.48 ± 0.06 30610 ± 180 2.59 ± 0.03 bh3/19 244 6090 ± 90 1.57 ± 0.04 39810 ± 200 2.06 ± 0.02
bh2/20 246 1600 ± 50 1.45 ± 0.08 25240 ± 160 2.62 ± 0.04 bh3/20 250 8850 ± 100 1.5 ± 0.03 51470 ± 230 1.87 ± 0.02
bh2/21 251 1380 ± 50 1.54 ± 0.09 20760 ± 150 2.43 ± 0.04 bh3/21 260 6670 ± 90 1.52 ± 0.04 39550 ± 200 2.09 ± 0.02
bh2/22 257 1370 ± 50 1.4 ± 0.09 19730 ± 140 2.7 ± 0.04 bh3/22 270 7540 ± 90 1.49 ± 0.04 43590 ± 210 2.03 ± 0.02
bh2/23 265 1350 ± 50 1.59 ± 0.1 19070 ± 140 2.82 ± 0.05 bh3/23 280 6170 ± 90 1.51 ± 0.04 36550 ± 190 2.08 ± 0.02
bh2/24 275 1610 ± 50 1.49 ± 0.08 20010 ± 140 2.6 ± 0.04 bh3/24 290 6850 ± 90 1.52 ± 0.04 41480 ± 210 2.02 ± 0.02
bh2/25 287 1270 ± 50 1.72 ± 0.11 18490 ± 140 2.79 ± 0.05 bh3/25 298 7180 ± 90 1.52 ± 0.04 48060 ± 220 2.11 ± 0.02
bh2/26 310 880 ± 40 1.82 ± 0.15 16150 ± 130 2.83 ± 0.05 bh3/26 351 6760 ± 90 1.5 ± 0.04 42770 ± 210 1.92 ± 0.02
bh2/27 320 990 ± 40 1.58 ± 0.12 14810 ± 130 2.75 ± 0.05 bh3/27 361 5280 ± 90 1.54 ± 0.04 36440 ± 190 2.03 ± 0.02
bh2/28 330 950 ± 40 1.75 ± 0.13 14330 ± 120 2.59 ± 0.05 bh3/28 370 5120 ± 90 1.77 ± 0.05 30290 ± 180 1.68 ± 0.02
bh2/29 340 1120 ± 50 1.66 ± 0.12 17380 ± 140 2.63 ± 0.05 bh3/29 388 9260 ± 100 1.62 ± 0.04 53430 ± 230 2.11 ± 0.02
bh2/30 350 1100 ± 50 1.73 ± 0.12 14730 ± 120 2.8 ± 0.05 bh3/30 390 9470 ± 100 1.52 ± 0.03 54490 ± 240 2.15 ± 0.02
bh2/31 359 660 ± 40 1.84 ± 0.17 11100 ± 110 2.74 ± 0.06 bh3/31 397 5910 ± 80 1.49 ± 0.04 42320 ± 210 2.05 ± 0.02
bh2/35 370 960 ± 40 1.64 ± 0.12 12850 ± 120 2.62 ± 0.05 bh3/32 402 950 ± 50 1.52 ± 0.11 9210 ± 100 1.74 ± 0.04
bh2/33 380 740 ± 40 1.81 ± 0.15 12570 ± 120 2.77 ± 0.06 bh3/33 407 2910 ± 60 1.49 ± 0.06 20950 ± 150 1.86 ± 0.03
bh2/34 388 760 ± 40 1.69 ± 0.15 9840 ± 100 2.56 ± 0.06 bh3/34 420 6730 ± 90 1.53 ± 0.04 42880 ± 210 2.13 ± 0.02
bh2/35 439 1250 ± 50 1.6 ± 0.1 14290 ± 120 2.34 ± 0.04 bh3/35 430 4220 ± 80 1.54 ± 0.05 27510 ± 170 2.05 ± 0.03
bh2/36 452 450 ± 40 1.64 ± 0.18 8950 ± 100 2.5 ± 0.06 bh3/36 440 5050 ± 80 1.42 ± 0.04 30590 ± 180 2.17 ± 0.03
bh2/37 459 900 ± 40 1.61 ± 0.13 15420 ± 130 2.31 ± 0.04 bh3/37 451 3980 ± 70 1.49 ± 0.05 29810 ± 180 2.22 ± 0.03
bh2/38 467 1620 ± 50 1.62 ± 0.09 14570 ± 130 2.72 ± 0.05 bh3/38 456 6520 ± 90 1.5 ± 0.04 48280 ± 220 2.24 ± 0.02
bh2/39 474 1120 ± 40 1.61 ± 0.11 12630 ± 120 2.76 ± 0.06 bh3/39 462 4850 ± 80 1.44 ± 0.04 41910 ± 210 2.11 ± 0.02
bh2/40 479 970 ± 40 1.66 ± 0.13 13220 ± 120 2.41 ± 0.05 bh3/40 468 6400 ± 90 1.48 ± 0.04 52590 ± 230 2.36 ± 0.02
bh2/41 486 910 ± 40 1.59 ± 0.12 15010 ± 130 2.51 ± 0.05 bh3/41 473 5120 ± 80 1.39 ± 0.04 52140 ± 230 2.25 ± 0.02
bh2/42 493 960 ± 40 1.55 ± 0.12 19590 ± 140 2.52 ± 0.04 bh3/43 477 4530 ± 70 1.5 ± 0.05 30990 ± 180 1.86 ± 0.02
bh3/49 503 4650 ± 80 1.39 ± 0.04 42280 ± 2102.13 ± 0.02
bh3/50 512 4530 ± 70 1.28 ± 0.04 39390 ± 200 1.95 ± 0.02
bh3/51 521 3860 ± 70 1.42 ± 0.05 28320 ± 170 2.28 ± 0.03
bh3/47 640 21400 ± 150 1.4 ± 0.02 133330 ± 370 2 ± 0.01
bh3/48 647 22560 ± 150 1.36 ± 0.02 145870 ± 380 1.98 ± 0.01
bh3/49 654 27690 ± 170 1.46 ± 0.02 144510 ± 380 1.93 ± 0.01
bh3/50 661 28040 ± 170 1.47 ± 0.02 162390 ± 410 2.04 ± 0.01
bh3/51 668 28350 ± 170 1.47 ± 0.02 156590 ± 400 2.07 ± 0.01
bh3/52 676 18830 ± 140 1.52 ± 0.02 103650 ± 320 1.94 ± 0.01
bh3/53 694 24720 ± 160 1.47 ± 0.02 142400 ± 380 1.9 ± 0.01
bh3/54 699 23210 ± 160 1.48 ± 0.02 132650 ± 370 1.98 ± 0.01
Figure 5.1
Figure 5.1: Luminescence stratigraphies for cores 8A (left, BH2) and 5A (right, BH3). IRSL signal intensities in red, OSL signal intensities in blue. The magnitude and range in signal intensities encodes information on age, grain size, luminescence sensitivity and radioactivity of the sediment

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