8. The Archaeological Evidence: Structures in Situ (Ground Plans)

The study of material from excavation divides into two separate but intimately related areas, one being the examination of the recovered material the other of the record of stratigraphy destroyed by the excavation process and of structures left in situ. The recovered evidence is presented in Chapters 4 to 6 and Appendix 1. On some of the sites from which this is derived, structures surviving in situ provide further insight into the technology employed.

Over a period of years, a number of pipe kilns have been excavated and recorded. In some cases the records kept were inadequate, in others records have been lost. Published plans vary in quality, scale and convention. For the purpose of this report all plans have been redrawn to the common scale of one to twenty. They all use the same conventions, a key to which appears at the beginning of the series. Wherever possible, original site plans, records, photographs and transparencies have been used to check the drawings and add information to them as necessary. Preceding each plan is a description of the evidence used in its compilation.

In the following plans the shaded area represents sunken features. Where the limit of this is clearly defined, a thick line is used. Where the shaded area has no thick line, it is not clear how far it extended beyond the certain shaded limits. All of the kilns illustrated are built predominantly from red brick; sandstone is occasionally used and, in later kilns, fire brick. These are marked on the plans S and F respectively. Such designations are only used for the kiln structures; where the kiln has been built into or against a stone wall as at Portsmouth or Manchester, this being apparent from the shapes on the drawing, no annotation is used.

Key to Plans Figures 50 to 67

Edge of sunken feature
Vertical face marking change in levels
Graded face marking change in levels
Heat damaged or slagged surface
S Sandstone
F Firebrick


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Last updated: Wed Oct 9 1996