Table of Figures

Aims, methodology and people | Karkotis Valley | Atsas Valley | Mandres | Asinou | Koutraphas | Lagoudhera

Aims, methodology and people

Figure 1: Map of Cyprus showing the TAESP survey area. Source and owner of background satellite image: NASA Visible Earth. Map: Michael Given.

Figure 2: Map of the survey area, showing intensive survey zones and transects of survey units. Map: Hugh Corley.

Figure 3: Fieldwalking SU3049 in the Koutraphas intensive survey zone, with five fieldwalkers 5m apart. Taken from the south-west, with the Kyrenia Range in the background, 14 November 2003. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 4: Team Central at Stavros (TP033) above the Asinou Valley, looking north, 5 August 2003: Colin Robins, Caroline Torres, Sarah Janes, Erin Gibson, Jackaline Robertson.

Figure 5: Team East at Ayia Marina Mavrovouni: Chris Timmer, Sophie Pullar, Alexis Boutin, Paula Barry, Luke Sollars, Angus Graham, 5 July 2001. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 6: Pottery specialist Kristina Winther Jacobsen analysing pottery in the artefact lab in Tembria school, 27 July 2002. Photograph: Vasiliki Kassianidou.

Figure 7: Archaeometallurgist Vasiliki Kassianidou by an ancient mining adit (TP184) on Alestos, 23 July 2003. Photograph: Thomas Tselios.

Figure 8: Database manager Luke Sollars at work in the computer room at Tembria school, 5 July 2001. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 9: The team at lunch in the school at Tembria, 24 July 2002. Photograph: Chris Parks.

Figure 10: Hugh Corley, Michael Given and Kristina Winther Jacobsen after loading Panikos Theodorou's fruit-delivery van with the project's artefact collection for submission to the Department of Antiquities, 11 July 2005. Photograph: Michael Given.

Karkotis Valley

Figure 11: Panorama of Karkotis Valley from Phlasou Koutroullis (TS06), 25 March 2006. The panorama begins with the hill of Koutroullis (TS06) in the middle distance; the road cut (TP135) lies at the base, hidden by the trees on the right. Scrolling to the right, there is a view down the Karkotis Valley to the modern mine of Skouriotissa, and then the fields and olive groves of the central part of the valley. Further right, past the large greenhouse, is a view up the valley to the south and Mount Olympus, highest mountain in Cyprus and source of the powerful Karkotis River. The village to the right is Korakou, followed by the ridge along the western side of the valley. Just before Koutroullis hill is the edge of the village of Pano Phlasou. Photographs: Michael Given. Panorama creation: Hugh Corley.

Figure 12: View from Pano Limna across the Karkotis Valley eastwards to Skouriotissa mine. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 13: Terracotta figurines from the Archaic sanctuary of Pano Limna (TP119). Photograph: Chris Parks.

Figure 14: The Karkotis Valley with Mount Olympus behind, looking south, with the church of Panayia Kousouliotissa (BU0094; left), Dodekaskala (TS11; in olive groves in centre), and the village of Korakou (right). Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 15: Skouriotissa mine, looking south-west. The Karkotis Valley is the first valley above the grey pit, with Pano Limna (TS15) at the base of the ridge. Photograph: Kristina Winther Jacobsen.

Figure 16: Section through Skouriotissa slag heap (TP007). Two layers of workshop floors can be seen, as well as the different fragmentation of the slag cakes. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 17: Tile fragments from Skouriotissa slag heap (TP007). Photograph: Vasiliki Kassianidou.

Figure 18: Roman amphora dump at Skouriotissa mine, looking west; no longer in situ (TP171). Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 19: Roman tomb, looking from outer chamber into inner chamber (TP127). Photograph: Kristina Winther Jacobsen.

Figure 20: Part of Pano Phlasou, looking east, with Ayios Demetrianos (BU0080; left), the school, Ayios Yeoryios (BU0084; right); and Molos water mill (BU0076); bottom right). Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 21: Karkotis Valley looking north-west, with the site of Agroladhou on the left (by the large white house), and Ayia Varvara (BU0087) on the right. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 22: Water mill of Lachistos (BU0070), 800m south-east of Agroladhou. Penstock behind; grinding room through window; wheel room through arch. Photograph: Chris Parks.

Atsas Valley

Figure 23: Panorama of the northern Karkotis Valley and Atsas Valley, from just north of the church of Prophitis Elias, 25 March 2006. The panorama starts looking south-west up and across the Karkotis Valley. Scrolling to the right, the small yellowish hill in the middle of the valley is Koutroullis (TS06). Further right are the villages of Pano Phlasou and Kato Phlasou. The church on the hill in the middle ground is modern and dedicated to the Prophet Elijah. Beyond that is the lower part of the Karkotis Valley. The ridgeline with a long yellow stubble field above a deep green orchard is Laonarka (TS09). To the right of that are the spoil heaps of the modern copper mine of Skouriotissa; the Roman-period slag heap (TS01) is at its base to the left. The Atsas valley is visible to its right, on both sides of the hill in the foreground. To the right are the grey rocks of the pillow lavas and the mountains of the Troodos range. Photographs: Michael Given. Panorama creation: Hugh Corley.

Figure 24: Atsas Valley from the south-southwest, with Skouriotissa mine and Morphou Bay (left), the area surveyed (centre) with stubble fields and gullies, and the western end of the Kyrenia Range (top right). Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 25. Roman farmstead at Linou Vrysi tou Hadjichristophi (TP202), taken from the spring to its south-east. The foundations of two small structures lie in the bushes. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 26: Millstone from Roman farmstead at Linou Vrysi tou Hadjichristophi (TP202). Photograph: Michael Given.


Figure 27: Panorama of Mandres area (TS07), 25 March 2006. In the immediate foreground all round are the threshing floors (TP122) on the southern edge of the settlement. The panorama starts with the core of the settlement (TP021) and the view north-west towards Morphou Bay. Scrolling right past the tractors you see one of the outlier houses (BU0006), and then more threshing floors, one of them (with the car) shaded by a eucalyptus tree. Another outlying house (BU0007) lies beyond it. Back in the core of the settlement, one of the houses has a new superstructure built for military exercises. Photographs: Michael Given. Panorama creation: Hugh Corley.

Figure 28: Kato Koutraphas Mandroudhes (TP239) from the south, with gridding in process. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 29: Grinding stone from Kato Koutraphas Mandroudhes (TP239). Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 30: Architectural historian Ian Evans by a lime kiln (BU0141) on Koronia hill, with a view southwards to where the plains meet the Troodos Mountains in the Nikitari/Mandres area. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 31: 19th and 20th-century seasonal settlement of Kato Koutraphas Mandres (TS07) from the south-west, looking from the core of the settlement. Photograph: Michael Given.


Figure 32: Panorama of Asinou Valley, 25 March 2006. From Asinou village (TS03; the white building has been rebuilt) scroll rightwards, where some of the houses of Pera Yitonia (TP061) on the other side of the valley are visible. Further right some white forestry cairns mark the boundary between the state forest and the village territory. Just past the valley's exit onto the plains to the north is the church of Panayia Phorviotissa (TP030), with tour bus and restaurant. Photographs: Michael Given. Panorama creation: Hugh Corley.

Figure 33: Asinou Valley from the hilltop church of Stavros (TP033). Asinou village (TS03) is on the yellow hilltop centre-left. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 34: Asinou: church of Panayia Phorviotissa (TP030) from the monastery ruins to the south. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 35: Nikitari Trimitheri (TP220): plan of structures. Drawing: Sarah Janes, finalised by Jean Humbert.

Figure 36: Nikitari Stavros check dam (TS19), with geomorphologist Jay Noller. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 37: Asinou settlement (TS03) from the south-west, with Panayia Phorviotissa in the background to the right. Photograph: Chris Parks.

Figure 38: Pitch kiln (TP105) in the Rotson Valley, with photographer Chris Parks. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 39: Nikitari Jerenides (TP038): plan of settlement. Drawing: Rebekah Merriman, finalised by Jean Humbert.

Figure 40: Nikitari Kapsalia (TP117): plan of monastery. Drawing: Julie Candy, finalised by Jean Humbert.


Figure 41: Kato Koutraphas village from the south-east, with the church of Panayia Chryseleousa (TP244) centre right (between the two concrete walls), and Skouriotissa mine in the background at the right. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 42: Potami Kambos tou Lemonari (TP095), an early prehistoric lithics scatter (in the foreground), looking north-west towards the Bay of Morphou. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 43: Lagoudhera river valley in the middle ground, Koutraphas Intensive Survey Zone on the plateau beyond it, Kato Koutraphas village just off the photo to the left, and the location of Nikitari Petrera (TP242) in the fields in the centre of the photo. Taken from the south. Photograph: Hugh Corley.

Figure 44: Field shot of pottery from Kato Koutraphas Petrera (TP242), including two 'slashed handles'. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 45: Grinding stones from Kato Koutraphas Petrera (TP242). Photograph: Hugh Corley.

Figure 46. Senet game board from Kato Koutraphas Petrera (TP242). Photograph: Hugh Corley.


Figure 47: Panorama of Mavrovouni (TS02), taken from the Rock of Ayios Kyriakos (TP017), 25 March 2006. The panorama begins looking north down the Lagoudhera valley to the village of Vyzakia. The black slag heap (TP006) is visible just to the right of the hidden bend in the track. To the right is a pit filled with water discoloured by sulphates, and then the spoil heap of the 20th-century mine of Memi. Further to the right the valley slopes are intensely terraced, some stone-built and some bulldozed, and are planted mainly with olives and almonds. Photographs: Michael Given. Panorama creation: Hugh Corley.

Figure 48: Panorama of Litharkies (TS05). The panorama begins with the mountain Alestos, with a spoil heap from the modern mine visible on its right shoulder. Scrolling to the right, the bare area in the foreground shows rubble piles, pottery and tile from a Hellenistic-Roman settlement (TP210). This extends into the orchards at the bottom of the slope. One of the rubble piles is clearly visible further to the right. There is intensive terracing, mostly bulldozed, across much of the area. Photographs: Michael Given. Panorama creation: Hugh Corley.

Figure 49: Roman mining settlement of Litharkies (TS06; below and left of the two squarish ploughed fields in the centre), seen from near the top of Alestos to the north. Photograph: Kristina Winther Jacobsen.

Figure 50: Roman mining settlement of Litharkies (TS06), with Alestos behind. Team East, with fieldwalkers on left and Geomorphological Intern on right. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 51: Plaster lining of well in cut section at Litharkies (TP191). Photograph: Charlotte Andersen.

Figure 52: Mining adit (TP153) near the summit of Alestos, probably Roman in date. Photograph: Angus Graham.

Figure 53: View from Memi mine south-west towards Alestos mine (the mountain in background), with Mavrovouni slag heap (TP006) visible as a black heap in the centre foreground. Photograph: Michael Given.

Figure 54: Section of slag heap at Ayia Marina Mavrovouni (TP006), showing successive episodes of slag dumping. Drawing: Vasiliki Kassianidou.

Figure 55: Mavrovouni from the north-west, with Memi mine in the background, the Rock of Ayios Kyriakos on the right, and the slag heap visible as a long rubble pile just over halfway up on the left. Photograph: Chris Parks.

Figure 56: Mining adits at Xyliatos Ayios Kyriakos (TS10), probably ancient. Drawing: Sophie Pullar, finalised by Jean Humbert.

Figure 57: Elevation of estate house at Xyliatos Athassi (TP014). Drawing: Cara McAllister, Lyndsay McGill and Chris Timmer, finalised by Jean Humbert.

Figure 58: Mining adit at Xyliatos Ayios Kyriakos (TP050). Photograph: Jay Noller.

Figure 59: Detail of ceiling of mining adit, showing the iron oxide marking (TP050). Photograph: Jay Noller.